01. RESPIRATORY DISEASES OF POULTRY –                                                               TOP

-Dr.R.N.Sreenivasa Gowda.
Vice Chancellor Karnataka Veterinary,
Animal & Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar.

Respiratory diseases are always prominent in avian spps as they are complicated by intensive & semi-intensive methods of managemental practices, and the anatomy & physiology of the bird. The disease survey in recent years from various poultry diagnostic laboratories in the country indicated an incidence, which was less than 1.2 percent in the year 1990 has increased to 23.0 percent in 2000.

Increase in incidence of respiratory diseases has been attributed to increases in the poultry population of broilers and layer holdings and introduction of integrated farming with multi age rearing in the given areas. These factors increase the incidence of immunosuppressive diseases like IBD, MD, IBH and mycotoxins and vagaries in which control programmes especially the different methods of vaccination schedules between broilers and layers have all complicated the problem of respiratory diseases in poultry. To understand respiratory diseases, the knowledge of avian respiratory system and respiratory cycle is essential.


The avian respiratory system differs from that of mammals in that the birds respiratory system can be compared to four stoke engine as opposed to the mammals two stroke of breathing. This modification is designed to use its respiratory system to perform heat dissipation.

The air is drawn through nostrils and pass through nasal passages and pharynx in a manner similar to mammals. The avian respiratory tract then differs in that it lacks the epiglottis a flap, which presents food entering the trachea or wing pipe, the bird has a simple fold of mucus membrane in the floor of the pharynx to do the same job. The trachea runs in throughout the length of the neck and divides into two bronchi at the thoracic cavity- “ syrinx”, the organ of voice and then connects to lungs.

The avian lung is totally different in that it is non-expandable and remains in fixed position to the ribs and vertebral column compared to balloon like mammalian lung. The lung is honey combed in texture, similar to a car radiator in that the lung tissue to attached to complicated arrangement of secondary and tertiary bronchi and each of these are connected to nine air sacs, which are thin walled membranous double opening balloon like structures that are peculiar to avian species.

The cervical, cranial thoracic, caudal and abdominal air sacs are paired and there is single clavicular air sac (9nos). Some air sacs extend into bones or into subcutaneous tissue outside the body cavity. These air sacs occupy all the available space in thoracoabdominal cavity and are poorly vasculated. There is no gas exchange between the air sacs. These help in buoyancy, flightiness of the birds and perform a similar function of diaphragm. There is no diaphragm in avian species.

Respiratory cycle:

On inspiration the air enters into large abdominal air sac, excess heat and moisture is added to the air before it pushed forward into the lungs where the red blood cells exchange oxygen for carbondioxide. The next stroke onvolves pushing of air into anterior air sacs, where more heat, moisture and waste gases are added, then the air is pushed to the bronchi for exhalation. On expiration air again passes through lungs, bronchi and eventually into trachea and out the mouth or nasal passages. Therefore, panting is a process of heat dissipation in birds. There are no sweat glands in birds. Due to complex nature of respiratory cycle, the birds prone to many respiratory problems because some amount of air always remains in air sacs. The efficiency of lungs goes down when dust particles clogs the nostrils. Improper debeaking and faulty nipple drinkers also cause damage to nostrils, pharynx and sinuses mechanically. Such birds are more prone to respiratory infections.

The increased density of the flock, and improper ventilation, increases humidity of the house resulting into wet litter. The degradation of uric acid in the organic manure in wet litter emits certain noxious gases such as ammonia, carbondioxide and methane etc. These noxious gases severely damage the mucus membrane of the windpipe, lungs and air sacs and make the bird more susceptible to respiratory diseases. For example, levels of ammonia as little as 20 PPM or even lower are known to damage cilia, depress weight gain and feed conversion. Combination of ammonia, dust and E.coli complicate in causation of “air sacculitis”. The air that enters into abdominal and caudal air sac in more poorly filtered of foreign particles and microorganisms than the gas that enters cranial air sacs. Therefore the abdominal air sacs are more susceptible to infectious agents than other air sacs. The environmental factors such as severe cold in winter and excess moisture/Humidity in rainy season is main predisposing factors for respiratory infections in poultry.

Respiratory Disease Complex (RDC)

The definite etiological agents, complicating vaccination schedules immunosuppressive agents and environmental factors are all complicate and contribute to develop respiratory diseases in poultry. (See table1) Most etiological agents cause only mild infection when it is not complicated. For example even MG, when present as an uncomplicated infection causes only minor problem. Similarly healthy birds exposed to field strain of IB may recover without complication. Whenever there are more than two etiological agents then it complicates to form a complex problem. Therefore, the RDC has to be viewed always as mixed infection rather than single etiological entity.

Further, the signs and lesions of respiratory infections are very similar regardless of the etiological agent involved. Laboratory methods therefore essential to identify and differentiate specific etiological agents. The common methods of identification of these infectious agents include serological tests like heamaglutination inhibition test, serum neutralization test, ELISA, advanced molecular techniques like PCR, histopathological methods and agent isolation and identification.


Cause                                  Factor
Managemental/                   High density
Environmental                     Increased ammonia
                                           Faulty ventilation
                                           Improper vaccination
                                           Social stress
Nutritional                           Poor protein supplement
                                           Deficiency in Immunopotentaiters


1. Viral                                 Ranikhet (New Castle disease)
                                           Infectious bronchitis
                                           Infectious Laryngo tracheitis
                                           Avian Influenza
2. Bacterial                          Infectious coryza
                                           Fowl cholera
                                           ORT (Ornithobacterium rhinotracheitis)
3. Mycoplasma                    M.gallisepticum
4. Fungal                             Aspergillosis
5. Parasitic                          Syngamus trachea

Prevention and Control of Respiratory Diseases:

The respiratory diseases control methods follow general principles of disease control in poultry, which include adaptation of proper standard managemental conditions, eradication, vaccination and treatment of outbreaks. No single approach is successful for all these diseases, thus a combination of preventive and control methods are needed.

A. Management:

Management includes regulations of environmental factors which includes:

1. Location of farm, proper spread of buildings and maintenance of healthful environment.
2. Separation or isolation of poultry houses to minimize spread of disease.
3. Segregation of birds by age and species.
4. Security to keep out all unauthorized personnel or visitors.
5. Adoption of proper Biosecurity and disinfections methods.
6. Maintenance of proper ventilation, humidity and temperature control.

B.Eradication: Eradication of disease is used for those infections that cannot be controlled by other methods and includes:

1. Maintenance of breeder flocks free from MG and MS.
2. Improvement of chick quality by paying attention to breeder flocks, health care, handling of hatching egg, hatchery sanitation etc, (good potent vaccination programme).
3. Improve the managemental aspects of breeder flocks with optimal floor space, water and feeder space, temperature, good ventilation, good litter, adequate nutrition and clean water.
4. Control of immuno suppressive diseases like infectious Bursal Disease, Inclusion Body Hepatitis and Mareck’s disease.


Vaccination is a very efficient, economical and effective means of controlling most viral respiratory diseases like ND, IB etc.,
1. Evaluate the vaccination programme against IBD, ND and IB. Some amount of vaccination reaction is helpful to obtain proper immunity. (Sera monitoring).
2. Attention is required about the type of vaccine, route of administration and method of vaccination etc.
3. It is better to know the local serotypes present in the area in some viral diseases for effective control of IBD and IB.
4. Breeder revaccination is essential as age advances to protect production and impart high parental immunity to chicks.
5. Mapping of maternal antibodies essential for fixing the vaccination schedule in case of IBD, IB and ND.
6. Flock health status for FC/Infectious coryza/MG and vaccinate only with vaccines prepared with local isolates.

D. Treatment of Outbreaks

While planning a program of prophylaxis, one should have a thorough knowledge of the type of management, history of disease and type of lesions so as to assess the probability of single or mixed infection. For example, Colibacilli (E.Coli) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) or M.synoviae (MS) invariably associate with vaccine strains of ND or IB in exacerbating disease resulting into chronic respiratory disease. If this situation exists in the farm vary often the program of prophylactic medication may be planned about a week or 10 days before the disease is anticipated. Since the survivability of mycoplasma is very poor outside the host it is possible to decontaminate the house using proper disinfection measures once the flock is removed. Coliform bacteria are ubiquitous and opportunistic organisms and may contaminate the environment and water supply. When field vaccine strains of IB and ND damage the respiratory tract of chicken, pathogenic E.Coli invade and cause upper respiratory infections, Control of Coliform and mycoplasma are not easy, once they have infected the flocks. Use of bactericidal drug is more effective than bacteriostatic drugs in treating mixed respiratory infections. Therefore, effective treatment consist of use of newer generation of antibiotics especially Fluroquinolone compounds. These drugs have broad-spectrum activity compared to traditional drugs. While controlling a treatment is often proposed for example I mycoplasma prevention programme, use of Tylosin and Tiamutilin either in water or in feed as per manufacturers instructions gives better results. When using antimicrobials in water one should know the dose in terms of milligrams or micrograms per kg body weight per 24 hours. This is because the consumption of water depends upon health status, feed intake and weather conditions (temperature). Keep in mind to prevent immunosuppressive agents that are promoting respiratory disease of poultry.


Respiratory diseases in poultry occur due to complex situations of housing, management, management, nutrition and secondary bacterial or vaccine agents. Therefore, treatment of mixed infections include proper selection of viral vaccines as well as treating the secondary infectious agents using latest drugs such as Fluoroquin alone, Tiamutilin and Tylosin and their proper schedule help in prevention and control of respiratory problems in poultry.


02. CONTRIBUTION OF POULTRY SECTOR TO HUMANITY                                                 TOP

-Dr.S.Ravinder reddy
M.D., R.R.Labs.

Egg and chicken are highly nutritious and economical food items. Due to fine-tuning of genetic potential of the birds by scientists, improvement in disease control measures and farm management procedures by farmers and up gradation of feed formulations by nutritionists, we could produce good quality protein at very affordable price. The prices of some other food items in comparison with eggs and chicken meat are given in the table below. Any body will have to agree that the prices of all items have escalated except the chicken and eggs.

It is very interesting to see that the egg and chicken meat are still affordable to the poor and the raise in price in the last 20 years is insignificant and less than other food items table – 1. This is made possible because of many committed people in the poultry industry. Hence let all of us eat more chicken and eggs and also educate people to take more of them without any hesigitation to contribute our mite for happy and healthy growth of our Poultry Industry.

Table 1: PRICES OF FOOD ITEMS (Rs. per Kg.)


03. DIAGNOSTSIC LABS-                                                                                          TOP

-Dr. T.Kotaiah
Indbro Research & Breeding Farms Pvt. Ltd.

Any industry grows as per the need of the people, the ultimate consumers. The needs of the consumers change from time to time as their knowledge grows in terms of health, wealth and environmental needs. The consumers set the trend and any industry has to adopt itself to meet the changes.

Poultry industry meets the vital need of the people’s “FOOD”. Since the last two decades, the poultry industry is growing in volume only because people started appreciating the value of poultry as food and the demand has been more than the production. The challenges before the industry differ from time to time. How to improve the quantum of production? How to reduce the time gap? How to mitigate the production problems to improve the efficiency? Are some of these:

Breeders were busy improving the quantity of out put. Nutritionists are busy designing the requirements and formulations to realize the packed potential of the bird. The housing and management worked on new trends to reduce the cost of production and increase the efficiency of production. Medicines were designed to reduce mortality and Biologically inventing vaccines for prevention of the exiting diseases. As the industry closes on meeting the demand effectively the prices fall and the consumers demand the best price. Besides, the consumer demands QUALITY. The quality in terms of hygiene, health and safety are of at most importance in food items like chicken and eggs. Hygienic production, pacing and delivery are going to be next priority of the production. Consumer will demand freshness by way of demanding on ‘use before’ lable. Consumer will demand safety from new diseases with zoonotic significance like Salmonella and Influenza etc. Consumer will demand residue free food. Residues will include chemicals and antibiotics, which were an important part of chicken diet till today. The above goals should be achieved and get certified by competent authority to gain the confidence of the consumer.



The laboratories can monitor the production units in advance to prevent the problems. The laboratories can conduct research on products to replace antibiotics and chemicals. Laboratories can act as authentic and responsible agencies to certify that the product is safe to be used. In house laboratories are a must for all production units to devise their own ways to prevent problems, invent new techniques and constantly monitor the envisaged problems. Recognized by Government these competent private laboratories can be the watchdogs on the safety of food items.


04. POULTRY MANAGEMENT FOR BETTER PROFITS                                                  TOP

- Dr. Mujeeb Akthar
Asst.Director, VBRI, Hyderabad.

Rearing schemes – importance:

· The brooding process is the nursery period for the baby chick and pout.
· Brooding may be carried out in cages or on the floor.
· The objectives are to provide warmth, protection and easily accessible feed and clean water.
· Brooding temperature should be started at 320 C (900 F - 1000F).
· The temperature should then be reduced 30 c (50 F) per week and then maintained at 21 0 C (700F-750F).

Brooder house preparation:

1. Most disease germs can be killed only by disinfection after thorough cleaning.
2. Effective cleaning begins with the removal of litter and manure.
3. The cleaning process includes scrubbing with brushed until surfaces are visibly clean, flushing with clean water and then applying of good disinfectant.
4. A day before the chicks arrive put the curtains in position and the brooding equipment, sprinkle lime powder 5 feed around the shed and fumigate the shed.
5. Spread the rice husk, prepare the brooding arrangement and repeat the spray with disinfectant in and around the shed.


1. Brooding can be done in cages and floors.
2. Put paper on the bottom of the cage or on the litter in floors and remove on day 10th.
3. Adjust the temperature to 29-320C (800-900F).
4. Temperature can be reduced by 30 C (50F) per week until reading 700F (210C).

Space requirements:

Floor brooding – Hover space: A maximum of 500 birds per 2M (six) hover or 750 birds per 2.6 M (S) hover is suggested.


1. De-beaking is a standard practice through out the world.
2. It is recommended that chicks can be de-beaked at 8 to 10 days of age.
3. Not more then 1/3 of the beak should be removed and care should be taken to minimize bleeding.
4. When 8-10 day de-beaking is expertly performed, it is usually unnecessary to redebeak at a later age.
5. If more debeaking is required due to high bird density, excessive light or climatic conditions, pullets may be debeaked again at 12-14 weeks.

Lighting programme

Egg production is closely related to the changes in day light to which the pullets are exposed. Start with 2 days of continuous light. From 2nd day to 3 weeks to 17 weeks maintain a constant light of 10-12 minutes per week or biweekly until 16 hours of light is reached.

Onset of sexual maturity of Egg production generally depends on 4 requirements:
A minimum chromological age, which is genetically determined (17 weeks). A minimum body weight (1.27 to 1.36 kgs.). A nutrient intake to support production (Crumble feed). A constant or increasing day light of at least 12 hours.


Poultry production is subjected to Intensive housing and management systems in order to maximize the main advantages of poultry as a food source. His intensification has been accompanied by an increase in the incidence of disease in these enterprises. Because the poultry industry is a worldwide activity with comparable housing circumstances and similar genetic stock that is disseminated to the entire major poultry producing nations. One can expect similar disease problem all over the world. In this context viral diseases represent the dominant pathology in the poultry industry. Therefore vaccination is essential for control, which makes poultry probable the most vaccinated livestock in the world.


One of the most significant factors limiting efficiency and good performance is disease. Hence if disease is prevented or limited, efficiency will automatically rise. The most effective form of protection against disease, especially for poultry under modern production techniques is Biosecurity. Medication and vaccination have played a major role in treating diseases but it is now widely accepted that they cannot, prevent losses due to disease. Unless the background challenge for disease organisms can be controlled, and good management practices are strictly followed, medication and vaccination alone cannot adequately protect stock. Poultry must be given an environment in which disease infections are controlled to the point where vaccination and medication can achieved beneficial effects. Biosecurity is a key element in this disease control method. Antibiotics that were once regarded as a “Cure all” are now an outdated concept. Antibiotic efficacy seems to be declining as pathogens develop resistance to them.

Aims of Biosecurity

Prevention of entry of microbes into the premises. Reduction of the microbial contamination of the area. Total elimination of pathogenic organisms from the premises that cause diseases.

Sources of diseases

· Chicks
· Water
· Feed
· Litter
· Vectors, Vehicles and Visitors
· Wind and Dust.

Bio – security measures

1. Structural Biosecurity:
i. Construct the buildings in East-West direction to avoid direct sunlight.
ii. Fencing of farms perimeter to prevent unwanted visitors.
iii. Test the water sources for mineral bacterial, chemical contamination and pathogen load. Use good sanitizer regularly.
iv. Feed, litter and equipments should be stored in a section separated from the live-bird area to prevent contamination.
v. Provide proper curtains to protect the flock from extreme climatic conditions and rain water entry.
vi. Provide good lighting systems.
vii. Ensure proper measures of ventilation.
viii. Facilities for disposal of dead birds.
ix. Construct proper drainage system.

2. Operational Biosecurity

A. Traffic control: Control human traffic – prevent people from bringing diseases into poultry operation by restricting access to poultry facilities. Monitor vehicles entering premises for poultry pickup or delivery of feed, fuel delivery etc. Create awareness on Biosecurity among the personnel working in the farm or hatchery. Provide foot disinfection and vehicle disinfection at the gate with a good disinfectant. Establish a logbook and record non-farm stuff entering the farm.
B. Rodent and wild birds control: Disinfection without prior to adequate rodent and insect control is wasting of time and money. Remove dead birds and after post morterm, incinerate or dispose them properly. Avoid contaminating the poultry premises with dead chicks, broken eggs or feed spillage etc. Which will attract wiled birds and these are main source of many infections and parasitic diseases.
C. Health Monitoring: Regular monitoring of health status will aid in evaluation of Biosecurity program. In production curve. Monitor on daily feed and water intake by the bird. Look for morbidity and mortality on daily basis. Keep regular check on external parasites like lice, mites and ticks.
D. Equipment: Any item brought into the farm from other farms should be thoroughly washed and disinfected before use. Wash all shifting items including trucks and other vehicles.
E. Disinfection: Disinfect all the equipments before getting into the farm. Provide foot dips with a good disinfectant at the entrance of the shed to prevent the entry of microbes through personnel. Provide vehicle disinfection and spray with a good disinfectant at the gate.

3. Conceptual Biosecurity:

It is best to build the breeder farm in an isolated area, atleast 3 KM away from the nearest poultry in case of breeder farms and 1.6 K.M in case of commercial broiler and layer farms. Breeder farms should be away from major roadway that may be used to transport commercial and backyard poultry. Maintain enough distance between breeders and grow out farms and facilities such as hatcheries and feed mills. The microbial load multiplies in the birds and spreads over the farm premises through the following routes.
1. Droppings
2. Exhaled air
3. Dropped feathers
4. Dead birds
5. Slaughterhouse.
Thus pathogen load increases in the farm, which becomes the source of infection for the subsequent batches. If Biosecurity measures in the farm are good, pathogen load is under control and the farm is free from diseases resulting in improved productivity. But if Biosecurity measures are not adequate, pathogenic load increases in geometric proportion resulting in poor productivity and possibly ending with disease outbreaks. This not only affects present batches but also the subsequent batches. Thus Biosecurity measures are crucial to bring the microbial load under control. Disease preventive measures are focused in the following areas.
1. Management
2. Nutrition
3. Vaccination
4. Medication

Common Factors:

1. Rearing of multi age groups
2. Rearing of broilers/layers together
3. Improper regulations of traffic.
Nutrition has got few limitations, which are quite inevitable
Variation in raw materials quality is a major constraint as majority are agricultural products procured from different sources. Price fluctuation forces the producers to alter the formulation in turn affecting the quality of the feed. To maintain quality of feed one should have improved conditions of storage and transport, which is again a major difficulty.
Vaccination is done in almost all the farms to protect the birds against diseases. In spite of proper vaccination disease outbreaks are seen frequently. This is due to severe field challenge; vaccines are not available for all diseases like E.coli, New and variant Virus strains.
Medication through feed and water are used to prevent many bacterial and fungal diseases, yet disease continues unabated due to limitations like No virus protection, Reduced sensitivity, Undesirable effect, Expensive. Therefore a vital factor in disease prevention is A Good disinfection program.
Good cleaning and disinfection are the powerful tools of Biosecurity, which helps in preventing the entry of pathogens into the flock. They play an important role in the Biosecurity of poultry operations including hatchery, brooding facility, poultry houses, storage facilities or processing plants.

Good Qualities of a disinfectant:

1. Broad spectrum: Effective against wide range of diseases causing organisms including Bacteria, Virus, Fungi, Bacterial spores and Protozoa.
2. Safe and non-toxic to both birds and the personnel.
3. Should not taint the surfaces equipment etc.
4. Should have minimum contact time
5. Effective in presence of organic matter.
6. Should be cost effective
7. Longer residual activity.
8. Non-corrosive to the equipments.

05. SKELETAL AND EGG SHELL DISORDERS                                                            TOP

-Dr.Avinash Dhawale
Farm Manager, Diamond Hatcheries (P) Ltd., Hyderabad.

Minerals comprise about 4% of most vertebrate’s animals. Calcium and phosphorus make up more than half of this amount. Although twelve minerals are known to be essential for poultry, meeting the need for calcium and phosphorus are perhaps the greatest concern because of the relative quantity and expense required and potential for adverse effects in event of failure to provide adequate amounts.

Skeletal Disorders:

A generalized skeletal disorder resulting in bone fractures is widespread in modern highly productive hybrid strain of laying hens. The conditions popularly known as case layer fatigue but is more correctly termed osteopenia defined as a loss in the amount of bone tissue leading to bone fragility. Two factors are perhaps responsible for this. The first has been the wide spread use of battery cages resulting in inactivity. The second has probably been the continued selection for lines of chickens that combine very high egg productivity with early sexual maturity, low body weight and low feed intake.

Causes of Osteopenia:

The bone of egg laying hen is made up of two types: cancellous bone which is largely responsible for structural strength and medullary bone which develops at the onset of sexual maturity (ostrogenic activity) and functions as a labile reserve of calcium for egg shell formation. Medullary bone has a crumbly texture and is not thought to contribute much to the overall strength of bone.

There are two conditions, which can result in osteopenia.

1. Osteomalacia: This is caused by defective mineralisation of bone but can be accompanied by increased resorption of cancellous bone; any loss of later leads to structural weakness. Nutritional deficiencies of calcium, phosphorus or vitamin D3 can result in osteomalacia.

2. Osteporosis: In osteoporosis there is a decrease in amount of bone tissue, the matrix of which is normally mineralized. In hens, a decrease in amount of ancellous and cortical bone will result in bone fragility.


1. Nutritional policies during rearing should be aimed at ensuring adequate dietary concentration of main nutrients associated with bone formation namely calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. There is no evidence to date that bone formation rearing can be stimulated above normal rates by other dietary modifications.
2. We shall ensure an adequate nutrient supply during the period of onset of sexual maturity, when repartitioning of calcium between different bone components occurs and orbicular bnone contents decline. Thus pullets should be transferred to a layer diet of high calcium content at the time when photo stimulations occur. Waiting until the first egg has been laid before making this dietary change may accelerate medullary bone formulation at the expense of structural bone. The form of calcium fed over this period may be important providing limestone in particulate farm can prevent some loss of trabecular bone.
3. Finally there is possibility of pharmacological help. Drugs such as biphosphonate, which are used to treat human osteoporosis, may also help to prevent the resorption of trabecular bone in hens.


Eggshell disorders:

Formation of eggshell is a complex phenomenon. A number of factors including heredity, nutrition, hormones, environment, pathology and management are involved in the process of eggshell formation. An egg with optimum shell quality can be formed only when these factors are present in ideal conditions and are functioning in hormone with each other. The site of formation of the shell is shell gland or uterus. An egg remains in the shell gland for about 20 hours (18-22 hours). These factors, which would accelerate the rate of passage of eggs from the shell gland such as disruption of the flock/lighting program, would reduce the shell quality.
1. Age: Shell quality reduces with the age of the bird. It happens because egg size increases without concomitant increase in rate of shell deposition. Secondly calcium-absorbing capacity of hen reduces with age from 60% at 28 weeks of age to 50% at 60 weeks of age.
Solutions: A) Try and check egg size by limiting dietary methionine (300 mg/bird. /day), limit the linoletic acid (1 to 1.2%) and energy in the feed to 2400 kcal/kg. B) Increase calcium percent of feed so that the intake is 3.8 gms/bird/day with phosphorus intake of 400mg.C). Reduce house temperature as much as possible.
2. Seasonal Variations: Summer has significant effect on shell thickness, which is aggravated in aged hens as shown in following table.

Season Age in weeks Shell thickness Microns

Winter 50 365
Summer 50 355
Winter 60 369
Summer 60 352

Summer induces reduction in nutrient intake. High temperature causes change in acid base balance of the body fluid due to increase in respiration rate and consequent decrease carbonate from the blood. Since 98.4 % of shell is calcium bicarbonate, this loss of bicarbonate hampers shell formation. In hot weather, more water is consumed and feed is flushed through the birds system more quickly and fewer nutrients are assimilated.
Solutions: Increase nutrient density; maintain daily intake of calcium (3.8gm) and available phosphorus (400mg). Increase vitamin-minerals premix in accordance with anticipated change in feed intake. Reduce the sodium chloride of the ration in such a way that the intake of sodium is 180mg and that of chloride is also 180mg. That is the ratio of Na & Cl is 1:1. This is possible by way of supplementation sodium from other source than sodium sulfate. Add vitamin C @ 150G/Ton of fed under heat stress conditions.
3. Nutritional Factors: A) Calcium:
An egg contains 2-2.2 g of calcium. Total blood plasma in a hen is 100ml on an average and the total calcium in hen’s blood at a given time is 25mg. This means that calcium in the blood should be replenished 80-100 times during 20 hours of egg formation. Calcium in blood will come through two sources feed and medullary bone. Medullary bone contains the calcium in labile form; that is, it can be used whenever there is deficiency in blood and redeposited whenever there is an excess quantity. It is important that the bird has this reserve before the onset of lay.
During night when the bird is not eating, shell deposition process in going on in the uterus (so that egg is laid in the morning.). During this period, if there is no calcium or less calcium in the gut (gizzard), the bird would mobilize its calcium reserve from medullary bones into blood for deposition of shell. During the period, after the egg is laid, when the egg is not in the uterus the bird replenished its reserve for the next egg. To have sufficient calcium deposits before the onset of lay and during the laying one should
a. Start pre-lay diets containing 2.5% of calcium from 16 weeks onwards.
b. Be Starts layer ration as soon as first egg is laid and maintain 3.7% calcium level.
c. Ensure intake of 4 g of calcium/hen/day after 45 weeks of age.
d. Provide 1/3 calcium source as powder and 2/3 in granular form. The granules are retained in the gizzard and provide calcium during the non-feeding periods.

It must be understood that even at 85% production, there are hens laying at 100% rate. Today high producing laying hens need enough calcium to produce the strong eggshells needed for current marketing conditions. It is necessary therefore to provide all of the hens with a dietary level of calcium, which is adequate for 100% production, even if the flock average is 85%.

Excess Calcium:

Indication of excess calcium is
1. Chalky deposits on eggs
2. Rough ends of eggs
3. Soft-shelled eggs. If too much calcium is ingested it must be excreted usually as soluble calcium. This can lead to a deficiency of phosphorus. Excess calcium also affects the palatability of feed and affects bioavailabilityof other nutrients.

B. Phosphorus: Egg shell quality shows a biphasic relationship to phosphorus reduces shell quality and egg production, high dietary levels of phosphorus also have been shown to be detrimental to shell quality. Increasing plasma levels of phosphorus may result in reduced mobilization of calcium from the bones. Excess may also affect acid base balance of body fluids. The requirement of phosphorus is 420 mg/bird/day up to 40 weeks of age. After 40 weeks, the requirement is 380 mg to 420mg.

C. Vitamin-D3: Vitamin D3 in its active form 1-25 dihydroxy which is also known as calcitriol is essential for absorption of calcium from the intestine and mobilization of calcium from the bones. Vitamin D deficiency would result in formation of eggs with poor shell quality. The conversion of vitamin D into calcitriol takes place in liver and kidney. Therefore any disease, which affects liver or kidney, could result in deficiency of calsitriol, which may lead to poor shell quality.

D.VitaminC: (Ascorbic acid): Eggshell formation consists of first laying down a network of collagen fibres to provide a framework upon which calcification process may proceed. The biosynthesis of collagen from amino acids and proline require ascorbic acid particularly for the conversion of procollagen to tropocollagen. Ascorbic acid also plays important role in the conversion of vitamin D3 into calcitriol in kidneys. Calcitriol along with phosphorus and calcium is vital for calcification of eggshell. Inadequate supply or marginal deficiency of ascorbic acid wills adversely aggect then calcification process thus resulting in poor textured shells. Supplementation with ascorbic acid in flocks over 40 weeks of age consistently results in improvement of shell quality and reduction in number of broken, cracked shell eggs.

Biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in chicken takes place in the kidneys. In the hen it appears that as the laying cycle progresses there is a greater demand for the ascorbic acid supply to meet physiological requirements, the most significant increase in ascorbic acid demand takes place during acute environmental stress such as excessive heat or cold weather. Under such circumstances it is common to find significant decline of eggshell quality and increased incidence of thin shell and broken eggs. Supplementation of ascorbic acid under such conditions has shown a beneficial effect in preventing economic loss due to poor eggshell quality.

Biosynthesis of ascorbic acid may also be impaired due to infections significantly impairing kidney functions. Under such circumstances supplementation with ascorbic acid is recommended to minimize economic loses. During the course of infections hens experience immunological stress, which has the effect of adjusting the metabolism, and the nutrients to best cope and adjust to the new situation. Under these conditions of immunological stress the requirement for ascorbic acid increases to combat infection acid is not available for the calcification process. This in turn resulting poor eggshell quality.

E. Micro-Elements: Some of the trace elements like magnesium, manganese and zinc are important for shell quality. Generally they are adequate in normal ration. In the event of shell quality problems the mineral mix should be checked for adequacy of these microelements. Excess Sodium Chloride in Drinking Water: If the chloride content of drinking water is more than 600mg/litre, it affects the shell quality.

4. Disease:

a. Infectious Bronchitis:
Flocks affected with I.B. show poor internal and external egg quality. Eggs may be smaller than normal, misshapen and corrugated. The shells may have calcareous deposits be thinner than normal or may be absent entirely.
b. Adenovirus (EDS76): The combination of a sudden fall in egg production associated with thin shelled, soft shelled and shell less eggs in a flock of apparently healthy birds is almost diagnostic of EDS-76. The other diseases affecting shell mycotoxicosis.
c. Mycotoxins: Decreased egg production and diminished external egg quality is typical of mycotoxicosis.
3. Worm Load: Internal parasites affect nutrient absorption and thereby the shell quality.

5. Management:

a) Frequency and time of collection: Frequent collections reduce eggshell breakage.
b) Damage due to the cages: Field experience has shown that an increase in egg breakage is observed in older units where damage or distortion of wire cages is observed.

06. VISCERAL GOUT- A MATTER OF CRACKING THE CRYSTALS                                TOP

-Dr.Avinash Dhawale
Farm Manager, Diamond Hatcheries (P) Ltd., Hyderabad.


Gout or urolithiasis is a metabolic disorder. It is condition in which kidney functions have decreased to the point where uric acid accumulates in the blood and body fluids. The uric acid subsequently precipitates as sodium calcium urate crystals, particularly in the kidneys. The damaged kidneys are characterized by atrophied or missing portions of the kidney lobes, and remaining kidney tissue that is swollen and white with urates.

Function of the Kidneys:

Removal of metabolic waste & toxin products, to maintain chemical composition of body fluids, to conserve fluid & vital electrolytes, to take care of production of hormones which regulate blood pressure and Haemopoeisis.

Pathogenesis of Gout:

When renal function stops, uric acid, which is normally excreted by the kidney, is deposited in any place where blood circulates. Since a high percentage of blood is circulated to the abdominal organs such as the heart, liver and kidneys, the lesions associate with gout are most pronounced in these organs, A bird with no kidney function will die within 36 hours.
Causes of Gout: The cause of gout is multifactorial:

Nutritional factors, Infectious factors, Toxins, Managemental factors.

Nutritional Factors:

1. Excess dietary calcium feed to immature pullets.
2. Diet high with calcium but contain low amount of avaiiable phosphorus
3. Sodium-bi-carbonate (which is used to improve shell quality in summer) fed to birds suffering from mild gout.
4. Excess protein (almost 30%)
5. Amino acid imbalance (especially lysine & methionine
6. Vitamin A deficiency over a long period of time
7. Fish meal, deoiled GNC adulterated with urea
8. Poorly processed soya meal containing high level of urease.
All these factors can damage the kidneys.

Infectious Factors:

1. Four nephrogenic strain sib virus namely Gray, Holte, Australian T strain & M-41
2. Unclassified IB viruses isolated from birds suffering from acute urolithiasis
3. Nephropathogenic lesion due to IBD virus
4. Avain Nephritis Virus (ANV)

Toxins & Toxic Substances:

Mycotoxins (citrinin,oosporein,ochratoxin)& phytotoxins, Inorganic or chemical factors such as heavy metals, agricultural chemicals, pesticides, disinfectants etc, Chemotherapeutics like sulpha drugs, Erythromycin, Gentamycin etc. Sulpha drugs are eliminated from the system via the kidneys and tend to have a low threshold for crystallsing, especially in a basic pH metabolic environment. Gentamycin injection decreases the activity of certain enzymes important to the gluconeogenic activity of chicks and lowers the gluconeogenic capacity. For unfed chicks gluconeogenesis is the sole source of glucose for glycogen synthesis. Any gluconeogenesis that occurs is dependent upon conversion of certain amino acids to glucose, and this process requires increased nitrogen production. Thus impaired kidney function in the face of increased uric acid production in unfed chicks could result in the development of visceral gout. Minerals and vitamins such as calcium, phosphorus, fluoride, sodium and D3 are potentially toxic to chickens. Chicks are more sensitive, probable because their kidneys are not fully developed. Sodium chloride toxicity. Poor ventilation: Poor ventilation oxygen supply/CO2 ammonia builds up in hatchery and poultry sheds.

Other Factors:

Hereditary predisposition may also play a part in out breaks of gout, influencing the autoimmune reactions of affected chicks and susceptibility of different strains of chickens. Water deprivation, dehydration due to holding of chicks in the hatcher for long period. Chilled water especially during winter.


Knowing what factors can cause gout, it is possible to control and prevent the occurrence of the disease. There are several precautions to be taken:

1. Pullets need no more than one percent of calcium up to 15 weeks of age. High calcium in the diet of pullets can cause serious kidney damage. If pre-layer ration is being used, from around 16 weeks of age up to five percent production, calcium content of 2.5% should be sufficient.

2. The level and the calcium, phosphorus ration in the feed should be reviewed and 8:1 in layer diets.

3. Dietary mycotoxins level should be kept as low as possible. It is advisable toad mycotoxins inhibitors to the feed.

4. Avoid deprivation of water

5. Do not sodium bi carbonate.

6. Review IB vaccinations programme. IB vaccination on day one has shown promising results in preventing gout in broilers. Note that if the birds need to be revaccinated with live bronchitis vaccine, this should be done before the birds receive a high-calcium layer ration.

7. Avoid using de-oiled soy cake or fishmeal of poor quality. Use properly roasted de-oiled soy cake any whole fish only.

8. Avoid using antibiotics like gentamycin, sulpha drugs.etc., especially in chicks.

9. NEPHTONE (from INDIAN HERBS) @ 4ml/100 birds for three weeks.


1. Acidification of urine with ammonium chloride as mentioned below helps to control gout.
1st week- 1kg/ton
2nd week- 2kg/ton
3rd week – 3kg/ton
Once gout is controlled, gradual withdrawal is desired. However some level of treatment may be needed for the life of the flock. Ammonium chloride may cause wet litter & poor shell quality due to metabolic acidosis. Acidified urine may inhibit the formation of urate stones but it may not dissolve the already formed urate stones.

2. Vitamin A at higher level.

3. Vitamin C at higher level. Kidney is the main site of biosynthesis of vit-c. It is possible that in case of gout, kidneys may not synthesize the vitamin C to the optimum level.

4. Vitamin D at higher level. Kidneys the site of production of active vitamin D metabolite. So birds with damaged kidneys may benefit from a vitamin D supplement.

5. Finely ground maize shoulder given to the chicks on the firs t day and chick mash from the second day onward. This reduces gout substantially provided vitamins and minerals are balanced adequately.

6. NEPHTONE @ 8 – 10 ML/100 birds for 10 days gives good result.

07. FATTY LIVER SYNDROME (FLS)                                                                     TOP

-Dr. B.Ramakrishna
Regional Technical Manger,
Indian Herbs Specialities.

It was more than 30 years ago when a poultry specialist mentioned for the first time about Fatty Liver Syndrome. This metabolic disorder is distinguished by an abnormal deposition of fat in the abdomen and fatty degeneration of the liver. An effected flock is usually of very good condition with a higher body weight compared with the age and production stage. The condition has become economically significant due to lower egg production and mortality above average. A little information on liver physiology and lipotropic factors makes us to understand Fatty Liver syndrome better.

Liver Physiology:

Liver is the chief site of lipid production in chickens. Diet contains only 2-5% fat and the contribution of dietary fat to total fat within the body is a minor fraction. Lipogenesis de nova in liver is the important factor for lipid content of the body. Excess carbohydrates in the diet are converted to lipid within the body. Excess amino acids can also contribute to lipid generation, but the energy required to convert excess amino acids to lipid makes amino acids not important sources of de nova lipid synthesis. The normal lipid content in liver is 5% and it increases to 30% in pathological conditions.

Lipotropic factors:

Lipids absorbed from the food in the intestines and that synthesized in liver is transported as lipoproteins. Liver secretes High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) and Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL). Lipoproteins are made of phospholipids and apoprotein.

Fatty liver may occur due to 2 main reasons:

Increased synthesis of triacylglycerols: Increased energy intake, impairment of energy and protein metabolism leads to increased accumulation of triacylglycerols in liver.

Impairement of lipoprotein synthesis: A defect in the synthesis of VLDL,HDL lipoproteins and dietary deficiency of lipotropic factors result in the impairment of lipid transport leading to its accumulation in liver.

Factors leading to fatty liver are:

· Most of the researchers believe that the influence of feed is the primary cause of FLS. The other mentioned factors regarding environment may either strengthen or weaken the consequence of an imbalance of feed. Over consumption of energy over a long period leads to increased fat in the liver, which may end finally in fatty liver.
· Ingestion of the poisonous elements in the feed, toxins arising from mould (especially Aflatoxin) can be very damaging.
· Erucic acid and glucosinolates in Rapeseed meal can lead to liver degeneration.
· Nutritional deficiency of the lipotropic factors like choline and some of the B complex vitamins such as B1, B6, Biotin, Folic Acid, B12, Pantothenic Acid. Because most of the B Complex vitamins are involved in the metabolism of Fat, Carbohydrate and proteins and its deficiency in feed leads to increased conversion of fat from energy sources and accumulation of lipids in liver.
· Feed deficient in protein or amino acid deficiency or amino acid imbalance.
· Supplementation of choline aggravates FLS incidence if the cause was due to Biotin deficiency.
· Caged birds and high environmental temperature increases the incidence of FLS. Hence increased incidence is noticed usually during summer period.
· Estrogens secreted at maturity enhance hepatic lipogenesis and hence the incidence is more sensitive for FLS.

Prevention and Therapy:

Excess energy intake is the most important cause of FLS, hence reducing the energy content in the feed or restricting feed intake decreases the incidence. Decreasing the daily ME intake by reducing the ME value of the feed or by means of feed restriction. If the carbohydrate content is decreased by means of increasing amount of fat, which is rich in linoletic acid, the ration becomes less sensitive to FLS. Removing the ingredient contaminated with toxins. Adequate supplementation of choline, the lipotropic factor in the diet.

Choline: Choline is essential for the synthesis of phospholipids, which is the component of lipo tropic factor. Choline is the most abundant group of phospholipids in the cell membranes. Choline has essential metabolic functions for which neither betaine nor methionine can substitute. They are as follows.
a. As a constituent of phospholipids.
b. As lipotropic factor
c. As precursor of acetylcholine synthesis, the transmission agent for impulses along the sympathetic nervous system.
A number of factors influence a hen’s requirement for choline for ex: age, feed intake and dietary protein or methionine levels. In diets with high content of M+C the choline supplementation required may be relatively low and in diets with lower M+C may need higher choline levels.
Though Choline is available in the feed ingredients, the bioavailabilityof ofcholine in feed sources varies. The recommended supplementary levelsof choline (100%) is: Broilers: 500-800 ppm Layers: 250-500 ppm. The above recommendations are given considering the variation of choline in raw materials and its bioavailability.

B-Complex vitamins:

Some B complex vitamins like folic acid, B12, etc., play the role of lipotropic factors indirectly. Vitamin B1 and Biotin plays an essential role in the energy metabolism. Deficiency of biotin results in increased liponeogenesis leading to fatty liver. Supplementation of choline aggravates the incidence of FLS if the cause was due to biotin deficiency. So a FLS condition may be well and easily treated with supplementing both biotin and choline together.

Vitamin E possibly in combination with Selenium has a positive effect on the synthesis and transport of fats. Adequate supplementation of the above vitamins aid in reducing the incidence of FLS. Finally, success in prevention of Fatty liver lies in correcting the basis cause combined with good treatment procedures.


08. DRINKING WATER FOR POULTRY-                                                            TOP

Sr.Scientist, Project Directorate on Poultry (ICAR),
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.

1. Introduction:

Water is an essential nutrient and is vital for all living beings. Animals or birds can survive without food for few weeks but will die in few days if water is not available. The importance of water in poultry can be realized form the fact that it constitutes about 85% body weight in day old chick, 55% in adult chicken and about 65% in egg. It is the major component of blood and other body fluids. Water helps indigestion, transport of nutrients in the body, regulation of body temperature and elimination of waste. Under normal climatic conditions, chickens drink about twice as much as they eat. However, during summer this goes up

Table1. Water consumption at different ages (ml/bird/day)

Source of water is either well water or surfacewater. Majority of the poultry farms use ground water (open or bore weeks) for providing drinking water to birds. Water from ponds, diatheses, canals or rivers can be used if it is pure water from rain. However, this type of water is generally polluted with pesticides, sewage water, and wastewater from other farms, industries or sewage plants. On the contrary, water drawn from a well is microbiologically very safe, but often contain high levels of chemicals/ salts.

Water quality determinants
Good quality water is the one, which has acceptable qualities in its physical, chemical and microbiological parameters, so that it can be safely used for drinking, it will be clear, tasteless, odorless and colorless. Ideally bacterial contaminants should be zero. It should not contain harmful inclusions; fitness of water for poultry consumption can be assessed by looking for the presence of the following contaminants/by using the following measures.

1) Nitrogen compounds: Nitrogen present in living organisms upon death gets degraded into ammonium. Nitrites and nitrates are produced during this reaction, which are highly toxic. Nitrite is a very harmful component as it combines with haemoglobin thereby reduces oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. This leads to poor growth rate, anorexia and poor coordination. When the concentrations are over 1000mg/litre, the birds will die immediately. In milder cases blood pressure may drop, and hypertrophy of kidneys is seen.
2) Sulpha compounds: They are present in the form of sulphide, sulphate and sulphite, of these sulphide is more harmful. Its presence can be smelled even at very low concentrations (0.02 mg/litre)-rotten egg smell. Intake of sulphate results in watery droppings, reduced growth and egg production. Water may behave bitter taste, if ferrous and manganese sulphates are present.
3) pH : Water pH in the range 5-8 is acceptable and extremes below and above this indicate possible industrial contamination. Poultry tolerate lower pH, better than higher ones. Water corrosive. While, high pH indicates high levels of calcium and magnesium, which block water pipelines.
4) Mineral contaminants: Presence of inorganic ions like calcium, magnesium, fluorine and sodium is commonly seen and such water is called hard water/saline water. The water can be tested for this. When hard water is boiled, salts precipitate at the bottom of the vessel, which is not seen with soft water. Hard water leads to building up of deposits and formation of scale in the water pipeline system, which are unsuitable for cleaning. Hard water also causes increased water consumption, wet droppings and drops in production and reduces effectiveness of water medications and cleaning agents. In layers, shell quality problems also may arise. Wherever such waters cannot be avoided, supplementation of vitaminC may helpful. However, this is only vitaminC may be helpful however, this is only preventive and curative. Therefore, in those farms where the water ishard, provide vitamin C regularly from maturity of hens till end of lay. Poultry can tolerate high levels of Flouring. However, if the levels are too high (>150 to 200ppm), depression in performance is seen.
5) Miscellaneous contaminants: Other contaminants that may be rarely seen are pesticides, herbicides, industrial residues and petroleum products, Heavy metals like lead, cadmium, copper, zinc and mercury are also found in water obtained from urban and peri-urban areas. These are signs of industrial pollution.
6) Turbidity: Turbidity of water indicates the suspension of materials like clay, silt, algae or organic materials. The levels should be always less than 5 ppm. Turbidity can be reduced by filtration.
7) Bacteria: Presence of bacteria in water is typically a result of surface contamination by organic materials. Pathogens that are found in water are Salmonellae, shigella spp., Campylobatcer spp., enteroviruses, free-living amoebae, giardia and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Indicator organism’s presence in a sample of water denotes that intestinal pathogens could be present and that the supply is potentially gangerous to health. The 2 groups that are most commonly used as primary indicators of fecal pollution are the coliforms and the faecal coliforms (E.Coli)

Avoiding the problems with good water management

a) Water quality monitoring:

While setting up of a poultry farm, the water available on the premises should be tested for its suitability for poultry. Quality guidelines have been established for the various parameters the water that is confirming to these standards only should be given to the birds, the analysis can be got done by any standard laboratory, located in the area. Similarly, water on an old farm also needs to be tested periodically for knowing the presence of contaminants and its current quality.

Sampling of water for analysis:

The sample that is collected should represent the water to be tested and that it should not be contaminated at the time of collection or before examination. For this, the following guidelines are to be kept in mind.
1. The bottle should be sterile and contain sodium, thiosulphate to neutralize any chlorine (0.1ml of 1.8% sodium thiosulphate for every bottle).
2. From tap, allow water to flow for 2-3 min and then collect.
3. From surface waters, place the bottleneck downwards below the surface to a depth of 30cmpointing towards the current. If there is no current, push the bottle forwards horizontally. During any stage, the inside of the bottle should not come in contact with hand.
4. Remove the cap and fill the bottle and close the cap immediately. Leave some space on the top to facilitate mixing prior to testing.
5. Minimum of 100ml should be collected and 100 ml if Salmonella is suspected.
6. Samples should no be exposed to light and transported to the lab as quickly as possible.
7. Samples should be examined within 6hrs and not more than24hrs.

b) Scaling

Addition of certain additives like medicines, vaccines, vitamins etc., to drinking water may create a polysaccharide layer in the pipe system known as the biofilm in which microbes will develop and contaminate the water, Similarly, mineral deposits (particularly calcium) known as lime or scale will also build-up inside drinker lines and provide a shelter for microbes, both can block the drinkers. Dirty water supply lines full of scale hide all kinds of microbes in the biofilm. High temperatures and low water flow will further trigger resulting in explosion of unwanted algae and bacteria in the water system. Unclean drinking water also leads to reduced water intake. Polluted lines can also reduce feed intake and efficacy of water additives.

c) Cleaning of pipelines & use of softeners

1. First remove the biofilm and scale from the inside of the pipelines. A stabilized combination of hydrogen peroxide and organic acids will dissolve the debris in couple of hours. It is necessary to flush the pipelines to eliminate all residues.
2. Continued water treatment will avoid build up of scale/biofilm and there by allow the system to function properly and the additives efficiently.
3. Chlorine also decontaminates the water but doesn’t bind minerals and makes water more alkaline. Similarly microbes residing inside biofilm also escape chlorine action.]
4. The problems are more at the end of the pipeline where the movement of water is very less.
5. The cleaning agent used should be a stabilized product, as it should last long enough to reach the very last nipple at the end of the house.
6. Acidified drinking water not only reduces the level of pathogens in the water, but also improves the digestion of feed and the performance.
Water softener is used to reduce hardness and operate through ion exchange mechanism. Polyphosphates and electrical/magnetic devices are also used for preventing scale formation. The latter work by altering electrical charges of minerals.

d) Use of Water sanitizers

The water can be kept suitable for drinking by regular use of sanitizers, which minimize the microbial contamination. The ideal sanitizer should behave the following attributes.
1. It should not be toxic to birds.
2. The commercial products should be used as per the recommendations of the manufacturer and should never add little more to get better results.
3. The product should be colorless, tasteless and odorless.
4. Should be safe to handle.
5. Should be safe to be released in to the environment through the sewage system.
6. Should cause minimal corrosion.
7. The water system should be cleaned between batches.

Use of sanitizer helps in disinfecting the drinking water. By this, it will be possible to inactivate the major avian viral pathogens (EDS,ND,IBD,Influenza) and to remove bacterial disease agents. (E.Coli, Pasturella, Pseudomonos). Several products are available in the market for the purpose. They are based on disinfectants like chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, ozone etc. Similarly, UV irradiantion is also commonly used for killing the pathogenic microbes in water. Nowadays, online dozers are available for releasing the sanitizer at the preset dose into the water flow in large-scale operations.

i. Chlorine.

Chlorination using variousforms (gas or as a salt of hypo-chlorite) of chlorine is the most commonly adopted method. Chlorine causes serious damage to enzymes or nucleic acids or the cell walls of bacteria. However, its efficacy reduces in presence of organic matter and it causes corrosion particularly to rubber/ plastic components. Chlorine is highly effective at pH 6 to 8, and loses its efficacy at pH 8. Chlorine remains effective hours after the initial treatment, even after the water leaves the treatment point. Nevertheless it is important to see that the residual chlorine level remains under 5ppm at birds level. Common bleaching powder @ 2g/1000 Ltrs may be given. Alternatively, several commercial products are available in the market based on chlorine/iodine which can be used @ 10ml/100ml Ltrs of water.

ii) Ozone

It is an unstable 3atom allotype of oxygen and is a potent oxidant and a very effective bactericide and verified (2ppm is ideal). The disadvantage with this is that the pipe network should have high integrity as it is injected in to the water tank and there is no residual disinfection effect.

iii) Ultra violet treatment

UV light in the wavelength range of 240 to 280nm is a potent germicidal agent, as it acts through generation of high-energy photons which cause severe damage to the DNA and RNA of the microbes, At an UV dose of 4mws/cm2, most of the waterborne gram negative bacteria (E.coli, plastridium, V.cholera etc.,) are eliminated. However, for removing the enteroviruses, a higher dose f 32mws/cm2 is required. For UV to be effective the water should be free from turbidity and dissolved slats. In contrast to chlorine (30 to 60 minutes), UV can disinfect water in a few seconds. Most suited for bacteriological problems. Since nothing is added, there are no residues.

iv) Hydrogen Peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is also is a very potent disinfectant and is effective particularly in the presence of organic matter (2.5%).

v) Combination.

UV) and chlorination may give much desired effect than either of them.

d) Water Filtration

Sand filtration: Water is allowed to pass through filter bed of sand at a velocity of 2 to 5 m3/hour. The advantages are reduced particulate matter, nitrogen and biological loads in water.
Membrane filtration: They are generally made of nitro-cellulose and remove virtually all suspended solids and also feacal coliforms, parasitic eggs and virus loads.

Zeolite filtration: this ideal for clarification, colour reduction and purification, of surface water. These will act as molecular sieves and cation exchangers. They are highly useful in purifying water for their adsorptive capacities for organics, cations, bacterial and viral loads.

IV. General Precautions in the farm.

1. Take utmost care in ensuring availability of water all through the day. Non-availability of water by 20% leads to about 18-20% drop in feed intake in broilers.
2. Train the day-old chicks to drink water from the waterers while leaving in the shed.
3. Provide adequate number of waterers in the farm so as to ensure optimum water space for each bird..
Water space requirements (inches):

Chick& growers Leniar troughs 0.25 ( 0-3wks)
0.50 (3-6wks)
0.75 (>6 wks)
Bell type drinker 0.15 (0-3 wks)
0.25 (3-6 wks)
0.50 (>6 wks)

Layers 1 nipple/3-4 layers

4. Check the nipples daily and avoid blocking of nipples by salts/scales. Further, regularly check the water level in the tank. Looking for water in the small top provided inside the shed for regulating water pressure in the shed will ensure adequate water supply through nipples. Provision for a transparent pipe on either side of the shed will help in monitoring the water level in the nipple pipeline system easily.
5. If nipples are used in broiler house, increase the height of nipple as the bird ages. For instance at day 1, keep the nipple at 4” height, at 7day-7”, at 14day – 9”, at 21day – 11”, at 28day – 13” at 35day – 14.5” and during last week keep at 16”.
6. Avoid water spillage in the shed from nipples/drinkers/waterers. Properly adjust the lever/screw in bell type drinkers to avoid water spillage. The weight placed below the drinker also needs to be as per the manufacturer’s recommendation. Increase height of waterers/nipple as the bird’s age. Remove the damp litter around the waterers periodically,
7. Keep the water cool in summer by adding ice, particularly during the afternoon. Water in the pipeline also gets heated up as it flows from one end to the other end of the shed. This can be minimized by cooling the shed using foggers. / Periodically flush the pipeline during summer to remove hot water from the nipple system.
8. Rats damage the plastic pipeline leading to water spillage in the shed. Protect the plastic pipes with rodent-proof cover.
9. Wherever water vaccination is followed, discontinue after sanitizer at least for a week. If it is unavoidable, add skim milk powder @50g/20lt so as to neutralize any residual chlorine in water. Then only add the vaccine to water. The quantity of water required should be calculated based on the normal water intake of the birds. Before mixing vaccine in water, withdraw water for about 2hrs. This will ensure uniform intake of vaccine in the flock. In summer, mixing of ice (1kg/10lt) will cool down the water temperature and improve the vaccine efficacy.
10. Do not dump litter or dead birds near the water source (bore well, canal or tank).
11. Following debeaking, chicks will find difficulty in taking water from nipples due to pain on the beak. There fore, provide water in troughs/open bowels for few days till the beak is healed.
12. Close the lid of water tanks for preventing contamination with dust (in breeder housed particularly) and development of algae.
13. The colour of the water tanks located on top of the shed may be painted white for reflecting solar heat during summer.
14. Keep the waterers (bell drinkers, linear waterers, water troughs) clean all the time. This is very important, as all the precautions that are taken to maintain good water quality throughout the supply system will fail if water at the end point is contaminated. Therefore, clean the waterer’s daily.
15. Contamination of water with feaces leads to microbial contamination (coccidian oocytesm enteric viruses, salmonella and camphylobactor). Therefore, contamination if water with feaces should be avoided.
16. Wherever troughs are used, cover the container with grills so as to prevent birds from entering the trough and contaminating water with excreta.
17. To prevent spoilage of water with surface water, the drill hole has to be closed around the water pipe. This is very important where the well is close to the production facilities and wastewater from manure can leak into the ground.
18. Surface water whenever used should be free from bacterial contamination, industrial and pesticide residue contamination.

Table: 2 Drinking water quality standards for poultry

09. IMPORTANCE OF LABORATORY                                                                 TOP

- Dr.V.Ramasubba reddy
Head of the department of po8ltry science (Retd), Hyderabad.

Nutrient and non-nutrient content in ingredients/feeds vary depending on several factors. These include; Soil, plant/ animal species and variety, environment, rainfall, maturity, leafiness, harvest storage, plant diseases, weeds insects etc. Laboratory analysis provides the analysis (nutritional and non-nutritional) the ingredients or the feeds contain. The feed ingredient/ feed may agree or may not agree with the available values published in book. Feed ingredients can be purchased based and their nutrient and non-nutrient content.

Feeds for livestock can be formulated more economically and accurately. Livestock and poultry are most productive when fed a balanced feed according to their nutrient needs. Feed ingredients available may or in most cases may not contain nutrients and non-nutrients as per book values. Formulations of feeds as per book values results in over or under values in nutrients in feed, This results in uneconomical production of livestock products. All feed ingredients have to be analyzed that substantially influence feed cost or livestock performance. This assumes importance when differences are high between estimated and actual nutrient consumption of the ingredients. Several nutrient and non-nutrients can be the basis for economic formulation.

Specific feeds can be used to deferent livestock. High quality feeds are fed to livestock and poultry of high productivity and vice versa. This results in proper utilization of feed ingredients available in the ecountry. Production practices like fertilization, time of harvest, method of harvest, etc., and management practices can be modified, provided analytical values are available.

Storage period of feed ingredients/ feeds may be determined on the analyzed values. Moist feeds may allow mold growth, spoilage, and overheating. Feed ingredients/feeds can be used to livestock depending on the concentration of toxicants. The levels of the feed ingredients/feeds may be set so that the feed ingredients/feeds are safe for livestock and the livestock products are safe for man.

Methods of Feed Testing:

The methods of test may be physical, chemical, biological etc. Physical parameters such as sight, smell, and touch can be applied at the farm level. Visually, stage of maturity at harvest, foreign material or pests, color, and leafiness can be detected. Musty and foul odors can indicate lower quality due to deterioration in storage. Physical evaluation alone is insufficient in feed evaluation. This can be combined with chemical analysis to get more reliable values. Some times, biological test on laboratory animals or species of livestock on which feeds used becomes necessary to evaluate feeds.

Analysis to be made

Nutrients of primary concern in feeding livestock are:

1) Moisture (Dry matter)
2) Energy (GE, TDN, ME, NE,
3) Carbohydrates
4) Fiber (NFE, NDF, ADF)
5) Protein (True protein, Non-protein nitrogen, Soluble protein, Urea, NDICP, ADICP, Digestible protein,)
6) Minerals
7) Vitamins
8) Toxicants
9) Contaminants (Inherent, Accumulated, Biological, Metabolic).



Sr.Scientist, Project Directorate on Poultry (ICAR),
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.

Poor eggshell quality increases the risk of eggshell breakage, contaminating the surrounding eggs. The shelf life of the eggs thus contaminated gets reduced, besides lowering the consumer acceptability. As per one report, about 7.77% of eggs collected are either shell less, thin shelled or ultra-thin shelled. The estimated loss of eggs from point of lay to consumer point, ranges from 13-20% in developed countries. The loss may be much more in tropical countries, where the environmental temperature goes beyond 450 C especially in summer.

The majority of the inorganic component of eggshell is made up of calcium (Ca) in the form of carbonate. Predominantly, the shell Ca is derived from feed and carbonate from metabolic source. Normally, dietary imbalance in Ca, phosphorus (P), cholecalciferol, trace minerals, fluorine, magnesium, ascorbic acid, amino acids etc, in pre-layer and layer diets influences the eggshell quality.

Pre-Layer nutrition

Layers require more Ca in diet than growers for shell formation. In order to improve the Ca reserves in medullary bone of pullets, increase in dietary Ca level during the pre-pubertal stage (3-4 weeks before onset of laying) has been recommended. In majority of commercial practices, 2% Ca is included in the diets during this period. The ideal situation for increasing the dietary Ca level from 1% to 2% is during 17 weeks of age. This level is maintained until the bird reaches 5% production after which a shift is made to the higher CA LEVEL (3.6%). The body weight of the bird in relation to age and lighting schedule should be considered while increasing the Ca level in the pre-layer diet.

Layer Nutrition

Calcium: Availability of ionic Ca and carbonate in the shell gland is essential for sound shell formation. The commercial layer producing more than 300 eggs with an average egg size of 55g requires about 650 to 700g Ca for an year, which is equivalent to more than 30 times that found in the body of a hen Low level of Ca in diet (1.5%) reduces the shell quality with in 24 hours. Sub-optimal levelsof dietary Ca (<3.0%) increases feed intake and this in-turn increase egg weight resulting in decreased shell deposition relative to the egg size. Low dietary Ca also forces to utilize higher levels (30-40%) of skeletal Ca for shell formation Absorbed Ca provides only 60% of the Ca required during the immediate shell formation. Ca required from its skeleton. An optimum dietary Ca level minimizes the dependence on skeletal Ca for eggshell formation.

Dietary Ca requirement also depends on Ca source and particle size of Ca source. Layers may need marginally less Ca in diets based on grit form of Ca source (oyster shell grit, stone grit, marble chips etc.) than those fed on powder form. The results from our laboratory indicated that for optimum shell quality and egg production, a layer requires 3.5 g daily and higher intakes did not show any beneficial affects. The Ca requirement is based on age of the layer. Old layers require higher Ca (4-4.25g/hen/d), compared to young pullets (37-52 weeks) for optimum shell quality. The increase in Ca requirement with age could be due to the increased Ca requirement for increased egg weight, reduced ability of Ca absorption from the digestive system and resorption from medullary bone. Few reports indicated that additional supplementation of Ca (2g/hen) than recommended improved the shell quality in flocks with poor shell quality.

Variation in intake of Ca on egg production and shell quality in layers (196-336) days of age)

Calcium source: Few authors reported oyster shell to be more beneficial than limestone for optimum shell quality. The poor shell quality on limestone-based diets may be due to the magnesium toxicity. Dolomite limestone contains higher concentration of magnesium (5-10%). Practically there was no difference between good quality limestone and shell grit in maintaining eggshell quality when the requirement of Ca is met. However, considerable variation exist in Ca content of limestone (22-40%) such variation in Ca content in limestone may cause Ca imbalance when used in diets without estimating the Ca content.

Particle size of Ca source: The eggshell formation is at maximum approximately during 7h post ovulation and reaches peak during 2-3 hours before oviposition. Ionic Ca should be especially at peak hours of shell formation (usually 2300-0400h). Therefore, residence time of Ca source in the digestive system is a during the peak phase of shell formation. Pulverized Ca source gets absorbed and excreted quickly, so Ca may not be available during the lodges in the digestive system (gizzard) and Ca during night i.e. in the active phase of the of feed and especially Ca source for layers is 1-1.5 mm. However, the article size of Ca receives adequate dietary Ca. But, in aged layers (>45 weeks) large particles of Ca source improves the eggshell quality even though the hen receiving adequate Ca (more than 3.75 g/day). The in vitro solubility of Ca supplement in 0.1 NHCL (at 420 for minutes) should be more than 47% for better Ca availability. It is always desirable to have 35-65% of Ca supplement in grit form and remaining as powder form.

Phosphorus: The shell quality tends to decrease above and below the requirement levels in the diet. Many researchers did not find any beneficial affect on shell quality of egg production due to feeding higher available P (0.35-4.0% NPP). The recent literature on P requirements in layers indicates much lower levels of dietary P (0.2-0.25%) compared to those recommended a decade back. The data from our laboratory indicated an intake of 237 mg available P/day was adequate for optimum egg production and shell quality.

Variation in intake of available P on egg production and shell quality in layers (266-350 d of age)

Cholecalciferol: Cholecalciferol is essential for eggshellformation for its involvement in the synthesis of ca binding protein (Ca, BP), which facilitates the Ca absorption/ transportation in intestine and shell gland. In practical diets, the concentration of supplemental cholecalciferol (1200-1800ICU/kg) is much higher than the recommended levels (300ICU/kg). The movement of Ca across the shell gland occurs through the association with the cholecalciferol dependent CaBP. Metabolites of cholecalciferol are more potent than the parent compound in Ca and P metabolism. At inclusion of 0.57 mcg/kg diet, 1U – OH cholecalciferol was 10.9 and 6.7 times more active than as active as cholecalciferol for shell thickness and shell strength respectively. 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol was 2.8 times as active as cholecalciferol for both shell thickness and strength. Providing optimum amounts of Ca, P and cholecalciferol in diet, the skeleton stores of Ca and P are not utilized for shell calcification. But, the skeletal imbalance of any of these nutrients in the diet, the P depleted from bone source gets accumulated in the blood. The excess P in blood inturn adversely affects the shell quality.

Ascorbic acid: Normally ascorbic acid is synthesized in chicken. Synthesis of this vitamin is impaired at higher environmental temperatures. Ascorbic acid promotes mineral mobilization from skeleton; thereby increasing the plasma Ca. Ascorbic acid is also essential for synthesis of steroid hormones, shell organic matrix and bile acid formation. Ascorbic acid is involved in Ca absorption thorough intestine or resorption from skeleton, stimulation of cholecalciferol metabolite (1.25 (OH) 2D3) production. Eggshell quality and laying performance in old layers (71 to 90 weeks) is known to increase with ascorbic acid (100mg/kg) supplementation in combination with cholecalciferol (2000ICU/kg). The beneficial affects of ascorbic acid supplementation on eggshell quality were reported at dietary levels up to 500-mg/kg diets. Supplementation of ascorbic acid is more beneficial when used under stress conditions (environmental or nutritional) as it helps in reducing the concentration of corticosterones in heat stressed bird. Ascorbic acid supplementation was found beneficial when added to diets containing optimum levels of Ca (3.32%), but not of sub-optimal levels of ca (2.8%).

Fluorine: Fluorine (F) is the normal contaminant present in raw Rock phosphate. The rock phosphate based P supplements in variably contain fluorine at varying levels. An intake of (F) from rock phosphate up to 476 mg/hen/day did not alter the egg production and shell quality compared to control. Though the shell quality was not affected with intake of F up to 1015ng/hen/d, egg production decreased compared to those fed with no added F in diet. Higher levelsof dietary fluorine decreased shell quality (shell breaking strength, shell weight and thickness). Raw rock phosphate containing > 3% fluorine may not be suitable to use as sole source of P in layer diet. Supplementation of aluminium (1:1ratio) can minimize the ill affects of fluorine toxicity.

Variation in intake of fluorine on egg production and shell quality in layers (252-364 d of age)

Trace minerals: Certain trace minerals have a significant role in formation of shell organic matrix. Copper and manganese are associated in shell membrane formation, shell morphology and shell thickness. Manganese plays a pivotal role in synthesis of protein mucopolysaccharide, which is the major component of the shell organic matrix. Copper is required for cross-linking of lysine in shell membrane. Copper deficiency leads to reduced formation of cross-linking in the shell matrix. Eggs produced from copper deficient bird are abnormal in shape; size (narrow end is less distinct) and shell may be wrinkled. Manganese deficiency results in thinner eggshell and may have translucent areas. Supplementing higher levelsof manganese in diet can obviate this problem.
Protein and amino acids: The levels of protein and amino acids in diet may not directly influence the shell quality. But, by manipulating the concentrations of these nutrients, the shell quality can be improved especially in older hens, where the size of the egg is bigger. Since, the amount of shell (CaCO3) deposition in an egg is constant, irrespective of the size of the egg, the shell quality can be improved y reducing the egg size with alterations in dietary concentration of protein, methionine, linoletic acid etc. Various Reports also indicated improved shell quality in layers fed low protein (17.0Vs 19.5%) diet.

Mycotoxins: Majority of mycotoxins cause pathological lesions in liver, kidney and other visceral organs, which are involved in metabolism of Ca, P and cholecalciferol. Aflatoxins are known to decrease conversion of cholecalciferol to its active metabolites and increase renal excretion of Ca and P in layers. Similarly, citrinin and ochrotoxin hamper the renal function when fed at toxic levels. Though, mycotoxins hamper metabolism of several nutrients required for shell calcification, no adverse effect on shell quality was reported even due to feeding mycotoxins at toxic doses for shell production. The lack of response on shell quality may be due to concomitant reduction in egg size due to toxin feeding.

Feeding time: The time of feeding influences the shell quality. Usually, eggshell calcification takes place during the late hours of night. Supply of key nutrients at site of shell formation is essential at the peak phase of shell formation is a paramount key factor determining the shell strength. The normal practice of feeding the layers during the early hours of the day makes the nutrients unavailable to the birds during eggshell formation. About 87% of the dietary Ca is metered out of the gizzard in between 0800 and 2000 hours and very little of the Ca source is metered out of the gizzard at night.
The feed intake is usually negligible in the night therefore blood Ca may be exhausted early during the most critical period of shell formation. Though some quantum of shell grit is lodged in gizzard its absorption from the digestive tract may not be effective in absence of other essential nutrients like cholecalciferol, P and ammo acids etc. Under normal feeding practices, little Ca is available to the hen after mid night while the eggshell while the eggshell formation is more active during the same time. Therefore shell strength of eggs laid in the morning is not as good as that of those laid in the afternoon. The time of Ca intake (feed) is important for shell formation and the most important time for the hens to receive Ca is during the afternoon when the shell calcification is initiated.

Midnight feeding will make the Ca more available during the time of eggshell formation. In this practice, the lights are switched on for a period of half an hour at midnight and the hens are allowed to eat. This provides a source of Ca during the critical phase of shell formation. Reports have indicated that bird can maintain shell quality with Ca sources having lower digestibility, by adopting feeding in the evening hours.

Heat stress-shell quality: The ambient temperatures during the most part of the year in tropical countries are much above the ideal temperature, which is detrimental to the shell quality. To minimize the ill effects of high environment at temperatures on eggshell quality, the following dietary manipulations are suggested. Ensure optimum Ca intake (3.75 g/hen/day). Supplementing diet with bicarbonate, cholecalciferol, potassium, ascorbic acid (100mg/kg), acetylsalicylic acid (0.05%) or sodium bicarbonate (0.12-1.0%) will improve shell quality. Layers should be fed during the evening to midnight.

The nutritional measures suggested for sound shell formation are an intake of 3.75 g Ca under normal conditions, 4.0 to 4.25g/hen/d during summer at optimum intake of available P (250-300) mg/h/d and cholecalciferol (1200-1800ICU/kg), with particle size of Ca source 1-1.5mm, feeding during cooler parts of the day (evening to midnight), supplementing fed with ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg), keeping the dietary F content< 650mg/kg, and ensuring optimum levelsof Cu, Mn and protein content in diet. The ill effect of heat stress on shell quality can be minimized by supplementing layer diet with ascorbic acid (100/gT), acetyl salicylic acid (0.5kg/T), cholecalciferol (2000ICU/kg) or sodium bicarbonate (1.2-10kg/T feed).

11. OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT                                                            TOP

Area Manager, Indian Herbs Specialities.

The key purpose of operational Management is to achieve the Organization’s objectives and continuously improve its performance. Operational management is being clear about the objectives you have to achieve through your team, in your department or for your part of the business and using the available resources to beast effect. Operational Management means getting things done through people. You have to make sure you have the right people to do the job. You have to develop a team and help each member of the team develop the skills they need to perform their job effectively. You need to plan the work and allocate it amongst the team, setting individual (targets) and providing feedback on their performance Managing people involves building effective working relationships and dealing with difficult problems, being careful to be fair and equitable tin all your dealing.

Meeting customer needs. How to meet the customer needs?

· Customer is an end used of any product, which is available in the market. This section deals about how to maintaining an effective operation to meet customer needs.
· The following are the tips to help us in satisfying the customer needs they are as follows: Be clear about the needs of your customer. Ensure suppliers provide value for money. Maintain a safe and efficient work environment.
· Design your operational systems to meet customer specifications. Solve problems for customers when things go wrong.

Establishment and customer requirements:

1. Research you customer needs: Use formal and informal techniques to identify the services or products your customers or potential customers need.
2. Design your services or products to meet your customer’s needs: Ensure your services and products meet legal and Organizational requirements and resource constraints.
3. Describe your services or products clearly-explain your services or products to customers, think about the person you are talking to, and make sure you communicate in a manner and at a pace, which is appropriate.
4. Encourage customers to discuss their requirements- Invite them to seek clarification wherever appropriate and tell you how well you are meeting their needs.
5. Communicate frequently with customers-develop a relationship of trust and good will, and keep them informed about any changes, which affect them.
6. Consult specialists if your are in doubt.
7. Negotiate effectively-use your experience of past negotiations to ensure the success of future negotiations.
8. Optimize agreements – create a ‘win-win’ situation, where you active your objectives whilst meeting customer needs.
9. Keep accurate records-include all relevant information about customer agreements and implementations plans.
10. Design customer-focused operations: organize your operations to provide the most efficient service to your customers.
11. Develop a helpful staff: - encourage your staff to put the customers first and to take personal responsibility for meeting customer needs.

Maintainance Supplies:

1. Identify the supplies you need:- check they are sufficient tomeet customer requirements.
2. Identify and develop suitable source of supple: make sure your suppliers can provide you with the materials you need for your product and services, always have alternative suppliers available for contingencies, if possible.
3. Select suppliers obiectively: apply fair criteria in choosing your suppliers.
4. Review your suppliers regularly-check they continue to offer best value for money and quality of services.
5. Keep accurate records of suppliers regularly.
6. Watch market and economic trends which may affect supplies-cost; availability, competitor activities or changes to legislation which may affect the price or availability of supplies.
7. Take action where there are likely to be problems or opportunities with supplies-where your informations suggests changes to supplies which may give you problems or opportunities, take or recommend, appropriate action to turn the situation to your advantage.
8. Keep complete and accurate records of negotiations and agreements with suppliers and pass this information on to appropriate people as soon as possible.
9. Maintaining goodwill-throughout your negotiations with suppliers, make sure you retain their goodwill, and find mutually acceptable ways offsetting any disputes.

Maintaining a productive work environment:

1. Ensure the environment is as conductive to work as possible involve your staff in assessing the work environment to see if there are different ways it could be arranged to improve productivity.
2. Cater for special needs – provide for any special needs of employees or potential employees to ensure they can work productively.
3. Ensure you have a sufficient supply of resources-plan what materials, equipment and resources your require to keep your operation running smoothly.
4. Where your do not have sufficient resources refer to the appropriate people-let them know immediately if you are likely to run out of anything.
5. Pass on recommendations for improving conditions –where you identify opportunities for improving working conditions, let the appropriate people know right a way, so the organization can benefit as soon as possible

Meeting customer specifications:

1. Check that specifications are clear complete and accurate-where there is any omission or ambiguity; get clarification from your customer.
2. Draw up plans and schedules to meet these specifications.
3. Make sure they understand how the specifications, plans and schedules affect them.
4. Monitor what is happening and take appropriate action to ensure specifications are met.
5. Make best use of resources.
6. Encourage staff to take responsibility for meeting customer requirements.
7. Give staff feedback-tell them how well they are doing in meeting customer requirements.
8. Get feedback from customers-use this feedback to improve future operations.
9. Implement any changes without delay and inform relevant staff, colleagues and customers about these.
10. Keep records of activities and how well you met customer specifications and make these records available to appropriate people.

Solving Problems for customers:

1. Design systems to anticipate and avoid problems for customers –design all your procedures to meet customer needs.
2. Advise customers about your policies and procedures for solving their problems-use appropriate media to publish your polices and procedures and alternative sources of assistance to which customers may refer.
3. Identify and acknowledge the customer’s perception of the problem-where problems do occur, listen carefully in order to understand and knowledge the customer’s review of the problem.
4. Gather all information relevant to the customer’s problem-refer to records and other people involved in order to get a fall picture of the problem.
5. Keep the customer informed tell the customer how you plan to resolve the problem, how long it will take and give the customer progress reports where appropriate.
6. Seek advice from colleagues or senior managers-where organizational procedures do not offer satisfactory solutions ask colleagues for help in identifying alternative solutions.
7. Implement the solution promptly-once the solution has been identified, take prompt action to solve the customer’s problem and information the customer of the action taken.
8. Check customer’s satisfaction – where policies or procedures do not offer a satisfaction solution, revise or develop new policies or procedures to avoid or address similar situations.


12. SAFETY PARAMETERS FOR DRINKING WATER IN POULTRY                                    TOP

-D.Govinda Reddy
B.V.Sc & A.H. N.D.P.H.
Srinivasa Hatcheries Ltd., GUNTUR-522 007.

Water is involved in every aspect of poultry metabolism. It plays important roles in regulating body temperature, digesting food, and eliminating body wastes. At normal temperatures, poultry consumes at least twice as much water as feed. When heat stress occurs, water consumption will double or quadruple. A safe and adequate supply of water is therefore essential for efficient poultry production.

What are the characteristics of safe, good quality drinking water for poultry? The answer to this question is often complex, because the quality of drinking water can be evaluated in a number of ways. It can be tested for Physio-Chemical Quality, Microbiological Quality and Agro – chemical contaminants.

1. Interpreting Bacteria test Results: - If the number of microorganisms found in a water sample is too high, it indicates that the water supply is contaminated. Well water is normally tested for the total bacteria level. Coliform bacteria are organisms normally found in the digestive tracts of livestock, humans and birds. Their presence in water is used as sign of Feacal contamination. Standards for animal drinking water indicate that there should be fewer than 100 bacteria of all types per milliliter of water and fewer than 50-coliform bacteria per ml. The bacteria level of Zero may be desirable to obtain optimum performance.

2. Causes of high Bacteria counts: High Bacteria count in well water may be due to contamination from sources such as sewage treatment fields that are poorly designed, improperly constructed, failing or located close to the well. High counts may also result from poor well construction (in the case of old or shallow wells) or poor maintenance if the well is not properly protected from the surface drainage water.

3. Controlling microbial Levels: It is not advisable to use disinfectants to maintain safe bacterial levels in a highly contaminated well. Any disinfection method is likely to fail at some time and expose the poultry to high levels of bacteria. The only sound approach is to eliminate the source of contamination. If that is not feasible, constructing a new well be the best alternative. Even if the water source has a low bacterial level, poultry may be exposed to the Microorganisms that grow in waterers. Because these organisms can develop very rapidly, waterers should be cleaned properly each day. Chlorination or use of other disinfectants in the water along with good waterers cleaning is an effective way of controlling microbial levels.

Chlorination using an in-line proportioner has been successful in poultry operations if the residual chlorine level in the waterers is atleast one milligram per liter of water. Once the water is exposed to the air, however, the dissolved chlorine quickly dissipates, supper chlorination or continuous treatment of the well with chlorine pellets can also effective, but the level of chlorine in the drinking water must be controlled because excess will cause poultry to lower their water consumption. Use of an iodine-base disinfectant to control bacteria in Drinking water is effective and provides more residual activity but is usually more expensive than chlorination. Be sure to use only approved chemicals at the use only approved chemicals at the recommended rates and ensure that the chemicals are compatible with the watering equipment. Also be sure to remove the disinfectant from the waterers and water lines before using a water vaccine or medication that is incompatible with the disinfectant.

Nitrates presence in water usually indicates contamination by runoff containing fertilizer or human and animal wastes; Nitrates are soluble and may leach in to the ground water by percolation, through the soil. The toxicity of nitrates to poultry varies with the age of the birds, older birds being more tolerant. Levels in excess of 50 mg/1 for chickens have proven harmful. Nitrate levels grater than 20mg/1 had a negative affect on body weight, feed conversion or performance. Nitrates are toxic at much lower levels than nitrates, concentrations as low as 1 mg/l can be toxic. If nitrate or nitrite levels in well water are too high and if cannot be eliminated, better to drill a new, deeper, properly constructed well to solve the problem.

4. Acidity&Alkalinity: The acidity or alkalinity of water is expressed as its pH level. Neutral water has pH of 7. Acidic water has a pH greater than 7. Well water normally has a pH in the range from 6.8-7.8 although it is not uncommon for the pH to be either higher or lower. Acid drinking water can affect digestion, corrode water equipment, and be in compatible with medicines and vaccines. The drinking water with a pH lower that 6, can impair broiler performance. Water with a pH between 6.0 and 6.3 is suspected of having a negative effect.

5. Hardness: - Although hard water may cause stains, leave residues or cause other physical problems in water handling equipment, hard water has not been demonstrated to have either a positive or negative impact on poultry performance. In treating hard water for drinking purpose the poultry care should be taken not to increase any existing chemical in balance in the water.

6. Naturally occurring chemicals: A large number of chemicals occur naturally in well water, they are usually present in amounts that do not interfere with the metabolism or digestive functions of the chicken. When the levels of certain chemicals are out of balance, however, they can – by them selves or in combination with other chemicals – effect poultry performance.

Sodium: Excessive levels of Sodium have diuretic effect Sodium level of 50ml/l is detrimental to Broiler performance if the sulphate levels is also 50mg/l or higher and the chloride level is 14 mg/l or higher.

Chloride: Consuming too much chloride has detrimental effect on metabolism. Chloride levelsof 14mg/l of Drinking water for broilers is detrimental if combined with 50 ml/l of Sodium.

Sulphate: - High Sulphate levels have laxative effect. Level of about 125 mg/l are regarded as normal for well water, but levels as low as 50 mg/l can be detrimental and have a negative effect on performance of either the sodium or magnesium level is 50 mg/l or more.

Magnesium: - Higher magnesium levels result loose droppings in poultry. The normal level of magnesium in well water is about14 mg/l. Magnesium at the level of 50 mg/l can be detrimental if the sulphate level is also 50 mg/l or grater. But magnesium level at 68 mg/l alone is not detrimental.



Dr S Ravinder Reddy,M V Sc, Ph.D
R R Poultry & Livestock Research Institute
Hyderabad , Andra Pradesh, INDIA
rr_ labs@yahoo.co.in www: rrlabs.org

India stands 3rd in egg production and 5th in the meat production in the world. This development was possible because of availability of world class layer and broiler breeds, infrastructure, entrepreneurship etc,. The challenges we are facing today are poultry product quality and unorganized marketing sector.

1. The eggs and meat produced in our country are mostly consumed locally . Indian consumer is not fully aware of egg and meat quality and he is neither demanding for quality nor willing to pay premium for superior quality products. This is one of the reasons for low margins in poultry farming .Further inspite of incentives given for exports negligible quantities are exported annually .

The poultry farms should be monitored for feed , water and environment quality by Total Quality Management (TQM).By adopting TQM with suitable remedial measures we can improve poultry productivity and quality. Farmer takes care of management, finance, administration, records keeping etc so he is not able to concentrate on quality. Hatcheries are professionally managed with specialized people working in Administration, sales ,service, finance etc,. and farmer needs to have at least 1 or 2 managers and supervisors for the farm management. Besides this some of the farmers are illiterates and less informed about quality. They feel that trained manpower is costly or difficult to get. This is partly correct because no body made a serious attempt to motivate unemployed youth to take up commercial poultry farm jobs.

Training is required for the following posts to improve farm productivity and quality
1. Poultry supervisors, vaccinators, managers
2. Feed plant supervisors, managers
3. Inseminators

The poultry industry today giving direct or indirect employement to 30 lac people already and it will provide more jobs as the egg and meat consumption increases (Table 1)

There are 50 lac educated youth in AP and 10 crores in India who are ether unemployed or underemployed. These people can be motivated to take up poultry job .Though poultry job needs hard work, dedication it can assure them a permanent job as this Industry is spread throughout the country and has bright future.

The institutes engaged in training of people for poultry jobs are
1. B V Rao Institute of poultry Management ,Pune
2. Central poultry Development Organisation Hassargutta ,Banglore
3. I V R I
4. Sri Venkateshwara Veterinary University, A P.
5. K V K- ICAR present in different parts of India.
6. R R Poultry & Live stock Research institute.

Recently the Indira Kranthi Patham of A P Government had sponsored a 2 month training program for unemployed rural youth with 100 % job placement guarantee. The students after completion of this training program are placed as poultry supervisors in Hyderabad. Our poultry industry needs public and private sector to take up training program and put them as middle level management .

The training includes theory classes as well as on farm training, feed plant visit , commercial broiler and layer farm visits. The training also includes basics in Maths,English personnel hygiene etc,.

There is a need to train and employ unemployed youth in the poultry Industry which can improve poultry productivity and quality. Good quality poultry eggs and meat can give
1. good price for our produce
2. Improving egg and meat consumption
3. Help in branding of poultry products

The farmer do poultry farming as professional business , produce high quality products and aim for higher profits in business by calculating Return on Investment and not on input cost.





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