DISEASES OF POULTRY –
THEIR CONTROL & PREVENTION
OF POULTRY SECTOR TO HUMANITY
A TOOL FOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
MANAGEMENT FOR BETTER PROFITS
AND EGG SHELL DISORDERS
OF LAYING OF HENS
GOUT- A MATTER OF CRACKING THE CRYSTALS
LIVER SYNDROME (FLS)
08. DRINKING WATER FOR PULTRY-
ITS QUALITY & MANAGEMENT
IN ANIMAL FEED ANALYSIS
FEEDING FOR BETTER EGGSHELL QUALITY
SAFETY PARAMETERS FOR DRINKING WATER IN POULTRY
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FOR QUALITY POULTRY PRODUCTION
IMMUNIZATION BY Dr.AVINASH DHAWALE
STRATEGIESFOR OPTIMAL BROILER GROWTH BY Dr.D.CHANDRASEKHAR
OF INTERACTIONS AMONG MYCOTOXINS IN POULTRY FEED BY Dr.H.V.L.N.
IN BROILER MANAGEMENT BY Dr.KOTAIAH
BIO SECURITY,THE ONLY WEAPON TO CONTROL POULTRY PROBLEMS
BY Dr.M.A.MUJEEB ATHER
FEED QUALITY RAW MATERIAL TO FINISHED FEED BY Dr.M.V.L.N.RAJU
SHOULD FARMERS LOOK FOR WHILE INSTALLING A FEED MILL BY
OF INDUSTRIAL/CONTRACT RESEARCH IN POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK
PRODUCTION BY Dr.V.RAMA SUBBA REDDY
RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FOR QUALITY POULTRY PRODUCTION BY Dr.S.RAVINDER
TRENDS IN FEEDING OF LAYER PULLETS BY Dr.S.V.RAMA RAO
OF ANALYSED SAMPLES OF FEEDING INGREDIENTS AND FEEDS
PROFILE OF Dr.S.RAVINDER REDDY
DISEASES OF POULTRY –
THEIR CONTROL & PREVENTION
Vice Chancellor Karnataka Veterinary,
Animal & Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar.
Respiratory diseases are always prominent
in avian spps as they are complicated by intensive &
semi-intensive methods of managemental practices, and the
anatomy & physiology of the bird. The disease survey
in recent years from various poultry diagnostic laboratories
in the country indicated an incidence, which was less than
1.2 percent in the year 1990 has increased to 23.0 percent
Increase in incidence of respiratory diseases
has been attributed to increases in the poultry population
of broilers and layer holdings and introduction of integrated
farming with multi age rearing in the given areas. These
factors increase the incidence of immunosuppressive diseases
like IBD, MD, IBH and mycotoxins and vagaries in which control
programmes especially the different methods of vaccination
schedules between broilers and layers have all complicated
the problem of respiratory diseases in poultry. To understand
respiratory diseases, the knowledge of avian respiratory
system and respiratory cycle is essential.
The avian respiratory system differs from that of mammals
in that the birds respiratory system can be compared to
four stoke engine as opposed to the mammals two stroke of
breathing. This modification is designed to use its respiratory
system to perform heat dissipation.
The air is drawn through nostrils and pass
through nasal passages and pharynx in a manner similar to
mammals. The avian respiratory tract then differs in that
it lacks the epiglottis a flap, which presents food entering
the trachea or wing pipe, the bird has a simple fold of
mucus membrane in the floor of the pharynx to do the same
job. The trachea runs in throughout the length of the neck
and divides into two bronchi at the thoracic cavity- “
syrinx”, the organ of voice and then connects to lungs.
The avian lung is totally different in that
it is non-expandable and remains in fixed position to the
ribs and vertebral column compared to balloon like mammalian
lung. The lung is honey combed in texture, similar to a
car radiator in that the lung tissue to attached to complicated
arrangement of secondary and tertiary bronchi and each of
these are connected to nine air sacs, which are thin walled
membranous double opening balloon like structures that are
peculiar to avian species.
The cervical, cranial thoracic, caudal and
abdominal air sacs are paired and there is single clavicular
air sac (9nos). Some air sacs extend into bones or into
subcutaneous tissue outside the body cavity. These air sacs
occupy all the available space in thoracoabdominal cavity
and are poorly vasculated. There is no gas exchange between
the air sacs. These help in buoyancy, flightiness of the
birds and perform a similar function of diaphragm. There
is no diaphragm in avian species.
On inspiration the air enters into large
abdominal air sac, excess heat and moisture is added to
the air before it pushed forward into the lungs where the
red blood cells exchange oxygen for carbondioxide. The next
stroke onvolves pushing of air into anterior air sacs, where
more heat, moisture and waste gases are added, then the
air is pushed to the bronchi for exhalation. On expiration
air again passes through lungs, bronchi and eventually into
trachea and out the mouth or nasal passages. Therefore,
panting is a process of heat dissipation in birds. There
are no sweat glands in birds. Due to complex nature of respiratory
cycle, the birds prone to many respiratory problems because
some amount of air always remains in air sacs. The efficiency
of lungs goes down when dust particles clogs the nostrils.
Improper debeaking and faulty nipple drinkers also cause
damage to nostrils, pharynx and sinuses mechanically. Such
birds are more prone to respiratory infections.
The increased density of the flock, and improper
ventilation, increases humidity of the house resulting into
wet litter. The degradation of uric acid in the organic
manure in wet litter emits certain noxious gases such as
ammonia, carbondioxide and methane etc. These noxious gases
severely damage the mucus membrane of the windpipe, lungs
and air sacs and make the bird more susceptible to respiratory
diseases. For example, levels of ammonia as little as 20
PPM or even lower are known to damage cilia, depress weight
gain and feed conversion. Combination of ammonia, dust and
E.coli complicate in causation of “air sacculitis”.
The air that enters into abdominal and caudal air sac in
more poorly filtered of foreign particles and microorganisms
than the gas that enters cranial air sacs. Therefore the
abdominal air sacs are more susceptible to infectious agents
than other air sacs. The environmental factors such as severe
cold in winter and excess moisture/Humidity in rainy season
is main predisposing factors for respiratory infections
Respiratory Disease Complex (RDC)
The definite etiological agents, complicating
vaccination schedules immunosuppressive agents and environmental
factors are all complicate and contribute to develop respiratory
diseases in poultry. (See table1) Most etiological agents
cause only mild infection when it is not complicated. For
example even MG, when present as an uncomplicated infection
causes only minor problem. Similarly healthy birds exposed
to field strain of IB may recover without complication.
Whenever there are more than two etiological agents then
it complicates to form a complex problem. Therefore, the
RDC has to be viewed always as mixed infection rather than
single etiological entity.
Further, the signs and lesions of respiratory
infections are very similar regardless of the etiological
agent involved. Laboratory methods therefore essential to
identify and differentiate specific etiological agents.
The common methods of identification of these infectious
agents include serological tests like heamaglutination inhibition
test, serum neutralization test, ELISA, advanced molecular
techniques like PCR, histopathological methods and agent
isolation and identification.
Table 1: RESPIRATYORY DIESASE COMPLEX
Poor protein supplement
Ranikhet (New Castle disease)
2. Bacterial Infectious
3. Mycoplasma M.gallisepticum
4. Fungal Aspergillosis
5. Parasitic Syngamus
Prevention and Control of Respiratory Diseases:
The respiratory diseases control methods
follow general principles of disease control in poultry,
which include adaptation of proper standard managemental
conditions, eradication, vaccination and treatment of outbreaks.
No single approach is successful for all these diseases,
thus a combination of preventive and control methods are
Management includes regulations of environmental factors
1. Location of farm, proper spread of buildings and maintenance
of healthful environment.
2. Separation or isolation of poultry houses to minimize
spread of disease.
3. Segregation of birds by age and species.
4. Security to keep out all unauthorized personnel or visitors.
5. Adoption of proper Biosecurity and disinfections methods.
6. Maintenance of proper ventilation, humidity and temperature
B.Eradication: Eradication of disease is used for those
infections that cannot be controlled by other methods and
1. Maintenance of breeder flocks free from MG and MS.
2. Improvement of chick quality by paying attention to breeder
flocks, health care, handling of hatching egg, hatchery
sanitation etc, (good potent vaccination programme).
3. Improve the managemental aspects of breeder flocks with
optimal floor space, water and feeder space, temperature,
good ventilation, good litter, adequate nutrition and clean
4. Control of immuno suppressive diseases like infectious
Bursal Disease, Inclusion Body Hepatitis and Mareck’s
Vaccination is a very efficient, economical and effective
means of controlling most viral respiratory diseases like
ND, IB etc.,
1. Evaluate the vaccination programme against IBD, ND and
IB. Some amount of vaccination reaction is helpful to obtain
proper immunity. (Sera monitoring).
2. Attention is required about the type of vaccine, route
of administration and method of vaccination etc.
3. It is better to know the local serotypes present in the
area in some viral diseases for effective control of IBD
4. Breeder revaccination is essential as age advances to
protect production and impart high parental immunity to
5. Mapping of maternal antibodies essential for fixing the
vaccination schedule in case of IBD, IB and ND.
6. Flock health status for FC/Infectious coryza/MG and vaccinate
only with vaccines prepared with local isolates.
D. Treatment of Outbreaks
While planning a program of prophylaxis, one should have
a thorough knowledge of the type of management, history
of disease and type of lesions so as to assess the probability
of single or mixed infection. For example, Colibacilli (E.Coli)
and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) or M.synoviae (MS) invariably
associate with vaccine strains of ND or IB in exacerbating
disease resulting into chronic respiratory disease. If this
situation exists in the farm vary often the program of prophylactic
medication may be planned about a week or 10 days before
the disease is anticipated. Since the survivability of mycoplasma
is very poor outside the host it is possible to decontaminate
the house using proper disinfection measures once the flock
is removed. Coliform bacteria are ubiquitous and opportunistic
organisms and may contaminate the environment and water
supply. When field vaccine strains of IB and ND damage the
respiratory tract of chicken, pathogenic E.Coli invade and
cause upper respiratory infections, Control of Coliform
and mycoplasma are not easy, once they have infected the
flocks. Use of bactericidal drug is more effective than
bacteriostatic drugs in treating mixed respiratory infections.
Therefore, effective treatment consist of use of newer generation
of antibiotics especially Fluroquinolone compounds. These
drugs have broad-spectrum activity compared to traditional
drugs. While controlling a treatment is often proposed for
example I mycoplasma prevention programme, use of Tylosin
and Tiamutilin either in water or in feed as per manufacturers
instructions gives better results. When using antimicrobials
in water one should know the dose in terms of milligrams
or micrograms per kg body weight per 24 hours. This is because
the consumption of water depends upon health status, feed
intake and weather conditions (temperature). Keep in mind
to prevent immunosuppressive agents that are promoting respiratory
disease of poultry.
Respiratory diseases in poultry occur due to complex situations
of housing, management, management, nutrition and secondary
bacterial or vaccine agents. Therefore, treatment of mixed
infections include proper selection of viral vaccines as
well as treating the secondary infectious agents using latest
drugs such as Fluoroquin alone, Tiamutilin and Tylosin and
their proper schedule help in prevention and control of
respiratory problems in poultry.
OF POULTRY SECTOR TO HUMANITY
Egg and chicken are highly nutritious and
economical food items. Due to fine-tuning of genetic potential
of the birds by scientists, improvement in disease control
measures and farm management procedures by farmers and up
gradation of feed formulations by nutritionists, we could
produce good quality protein at very affordable price. The
prices of some other food items in comparison with eggs
and chicken meat are given in the table below. Any body
will have to agree that the prices of all items have escalated
except the chicken and eggs.
It is very interesting to see that the egg
and chicken meat are still affordable to the poor and the
raise in price in the last 20 years is insignificant and
less than other food items table – 1. This is made
possible because of many committed people in the poultry
industry. Hence let all of us eat more chicken and eggs
and also educate people to take more of them without any
hesigitation to contribute our mite for happy and healthy
growth of our Poultry Industry.
Table 1: PRICES OF FOOD ITEMS (Rs. per Kg.)
A TOOL FOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Indbro Research & Breeding Farms Pvt. Ltd.
Any industry grows as per the need of the people, the ultimate
consumers. The needs of the consumers change from time to
time as their knowledge grows in terms of health, wealth
and environmental needs. The consumers set the trend and
any industry has to adopt itself to meet the changes.
Poultry industry meets the vital need of
the people’s “FOOD”. Since the last two
decades, the poultry industry is growing in volume only
because people started appreciating the value of poultry
as food and the demand has been more than the production.
The challenges before the industry differ from time to time.
How to improve the quantum of production? How to reduce
the time gap? How to mitigate the production problems to
improve the efficiency? Are some of these:
Breeders were busy improving the quantity
of out put. Nutritionists are busy designing the requirements
and formulations to realize the packed potential of the
bird. The housing and management worked on new trends to
reduce the cost of production and increase the efficiency
of production. Medicines were designed to reduce mortality
and Biologically inventing vaccines for prevention of the
exiting diseases. As the industry closes on meeting the
demand effectively the prices fall and the consumers demand
the best price. Besides, the consumer demands QUALITY. The
quality in terms of hygiene, health and safety are of at
most importance in food items like chicken and eggs. Hygienic
production, pacing and delivery are going to be next priority
of the production. Consumer will demand freshness by way
of demanding on ‘use before’ lable. Consumer
will demand safety from new diseases with zoonotic significance
like Salmonella and Influenza etc. Consumer will demand
residue free food. Residues will include chemicals and antibiotics,
which were an important part of chicken diet till today.
The above goals should be achieved and get certified by
competent authority to gain the confidence of the consumer.
ROLE OF LABORATORIES:
The laboratories can monitor the production
units in advance to prevent the problems. The laboratories
can conduct research on products to replace antibiotics
and chemicals. Laboratories can act as authentic and responsible
agencies to certify that the product is safe to be used.
In house laboratories are a must for all production units
to devise their own ways to prevent problems, invent new
techniques and constantly monitor the envisaged problems.
Recognized by Government these competent private laboratories
can be the watchdogs on the safety of food items.
04. POULTRY MANAGEMENT FOR BETTER PROFITS
- Dr. Mujeeb Akthar
Asst.Director, VBRI, Hyderabad.
Rearing schemes – importance:
· The brooding process is the nursery period for
the baby chick and pout.
· Brooding may be carried out in cages or on the
· The objectives are to provide warmth, protection
and easily accessible feed and clean water.
· Brooding temperature should be started at 320 C
(900 F - 1000F).
· The temperature should then be reduced 30 c (50
F) per week and then maintained at 21 0 C (700F-750F).
Brooder house preparation:
1. Most disease germs can be killed only by disinfection
after thorough cleaning.
2. Effective cleaning begins with the removal of litter
3. The cleaning process includes scrubbing with brushed
until surfaces are visibly clean, flushing with clean water
and then applying of good disinfectant.
4. A day before the chicks arrive put the curtains in position
and the brooding equipment, sprinkle lime powder 5 feed
around the shed and fumigate the shed.
5. Spread the rice husk, prepare the brooding arrangement
and repeat the spray with disinfectant in and around the
1. Brooding can be done in cages and floors.
2. Put paper on the bottom of the cage or on the litter
in floors and remove on day 10th.
3. Adjust the temperature to 29-320C (800-900F).
4. Temperature can be reduced by 30 C (50F) per week until
reading 700F (210C).
Floor brooding – Hover space: A maximum of 500 birds
per 2M (six) hover or 750 birds per 2.6 M (S) hover is suggested.
1. De-beaking is a standard practice through out the world.
2. It is recommended that chicks can be de-beaked at 8 to
10 days of age.
3. Not more then 1/3 of the beak should be removed and care
should be taken to minimize bleeding.
4. When 8-10 day de-beaking is expertly performed, it is
usually unnecessary to redebeak at a later age.
5. If more debeaking is required due to high bird density,
excessive light or climatic conditions, pullets may be debeaked
again at 12-14 weeks.
Egg production is closely related to the changes in day
light to which the pullets are exposed. Start with 2 days
of continuous light. From 2nd day to 3 weeks to 17 weeks
maintain a constant light of 10-12 minutes per week or biweekly
until 16 hours of light is reached.
Onset of sexual maturity of Egg production
generally depends on 4 requirements:
A minimum chromological age, which is genetically determined
(17 weeks). A minimum body weight (1.27 to 1.36 kgs.). A
nutrient intake to support production (Crumble feed). A
constant or increasing day light of at least 12 hours.
Poultry production is subjected to Intensive housing and
management systems in order to maximize the main advantages
of poultry as a food source. His intensification has been
accompanied by an increase in the incidence of disease in
these enterprises. Because the poultry industry is a worldwide
activity with comparable housing circumstances and similar
genetic stock that is disseminated to the entire major poultry
producing nations. One can expect similar disease problem
all over the world. In this context viral diseases represent
the dominant pathology in the poultry industry. Therefore
vaccination is essential for control, which makes poultry
probable the most vaccinated livestock in the world.
One of the most significant factors limiting efficiency
and good performance is disease. Hence if disease is prevented
or limited, efficiency will automatically rise. The most
effective form of protection against disease, especially
for poultry under modern production techniques is Biosecurity.
Medication and vaccination have played a major role in treating
diseases but it is now widely accepted that they cannot,
prevent losses due to disease. Unless the background challenge
for disease organisms can be controlled, and good management
practices are strictly followed, medication and vaccination
alone cannot adequately protect stock. Poultry must be given
an environment in which disease infections are controlled
to the point where vaccination and medication can achieved
beneficial effects. Biosecurity is a key element in this
disease control method. Antibiotics that were once regarded
as a “Cure all” are now an outdated concept.
Antibiotic efficacy seems to be declining as pathogens develop
resistance to them.
Aims of Biosecurity
Prevention of entry of microbes into the premises. Reduction
of the microbial contamination of the area. Total elimination
of pathogenic organisms from the premises that cause diseases.
Sources of diseases
· Vectors, Vehicles and Visitors
· Wind and Dust.
Bio – security measures
1. Structural Biosecurity:
i. Construct the buildings in East-West direction to avoid
ii. Fencing of farms perimeter to prevent unwanted visitors.
iii. Test the water sources for mineral bacterial, chemical
contamination and pathogen load. Use good sanitizer regularly.
iv. Feed, litter and equipments should be stored in a section
separated from the live-bird area to prevent contamination.
v. Provide proper curtains to protect the flock from extreme
climatic conditions and rain water entry.
vi. Provide good lighting systems.
vii. Ensure proper measures of ventilation.
viii. Facilities for disposal of dead birds.
ix. Construct proper drainage system.
2. Operational Biosecurity
A. Traffic control: Control human traffic – prevent
people from bringing diseases into poultry operation by
restricting access to poultry facilities. Monitor vehicles
entering premises for poultry pickup or delivery of feed,
fuel delivery etc. Create awareness on Biosecurity among
the personnel working in the farm or hatchery. Provide foot
disinfection and vehicle disinfection at the gate with a
good disinfectant. Establish a logbook and record non-farm
stuff entering the farm.
B. Rodent and wild birds control: Disinfection without prior
to adequate rodent and insect control is wasting of time
and money. Remove dead birds and after post morterm, incinerate
or dispose them properly. Avoid contaminating the poultry
premises with dead chicks, broken eggs or feed spillage
etc. Which will attract wiled birds and these are main source
of many infections and parasitic diseases.
C. Health Monitoring: Regular monitoring of health status
will aid in evaluation of Biosecurity program. In production
curve. Monitor on daily feed and water intake by the bird.
Look for morbidity and mortality on daily basis. Keep regular
check on external parasites like lice, mites and ticks.
D. Equipment: Any item brought into the farm from other
farms should be thoroughly washed and disinfected before
use. Wash all shifting items including trucks and other
E. Disinfection: Disinfect all the equipments before getting
into the farm. Provide foot dips with a good disinfectant
at the entrance of the shed to prevent the entry of microbes
through personnel. Provide vehicle disinfection and spray
with a good disinfectant at the gate.
3. Conceptual Biosecurity:
It is best to build the breeder farm in an isolated area,
atleast 3 KM away from the nearest poultry in case of breeder
farms and 1.6 K.M in case of commercial broiler and layer
farms. Breeder farms should be away from major roadway that
may be used to transport commercial and backyard poultry.
Maintain enough distance between breeders and grow out farms
and facilities such as hatcheries and feed mills. The microbial
load multiplies in the birds and spreads over the farm premises
through the following routes.
2. Exhaled air
3. Dropped feathers
4. Dead birds
Thus pathogen load increases in the farm, which becomes
the source of infection for the subsequent batches. If Biosecurity
measures in the farm are good, pathogen load is under control
and the farm is free from diseases resulting in improved
productivity. But if Biosecurity measures are not adequate,
pathogenic load increases in geometric proportion resulting
in poor productivity and possibly ending with disease outbreaks.
This not only affects present batches but also the subsequent
batches. Thus Biosecurity measures are crucial to bring
the microbial load under control. Disease preventive measures
are focused in the following areas.
1. Rearing of multi age groups
2. Rearing of broilers/layers together
3. Improper regulations of traffic.
Nutrition has got few limitations, which are quite inevitable
Variation in raw materials quality is a major constraint
as majority are agricultural products procured from different
sources. Price fluctuation forces the producers to alter
the formulation in turn affecting the quality of the feed.
To maintain quality of feed one should have improved conditions
of storage and transport, which is again a major difficulty.
Vaccination is done in almost all the farms to protect the
birds against diseases. In spite of proper vaccination disease
outbreaks are seen frequently. This is due to severe field
challenge; vaccines are not available for all diseases like
E.coli, New and variant Virus strains.
Medication through feed and water are used to prevent many
bacterial and fungal diseases, yet disease continues unabated
due to limitations like No virus protection, Reduced sensitivity,
Undesirable effect, Expensive. Therefore a vital factor
in disease prevention is A Good disinfection program.
Good cleaning and disinfection are the powerful tools of
Biosecurity, which helps in preventing the entry of pathogens
into the flock. They play an important role in the Biosecurity
of poultry operations including hatchery, brooding facility,
poultry houses, storage facilities or processing plants.
Good Qualities of a disinfectant:
1. Broad spectrum: Effective against wide range of diseases
causing organisms including Bacteria, Virus, Fungi, Bacterial
spores and Protozoa.
2. Safe and non-toxic to both birds and the personnel.
3. Should not taint the surfaces equipment etc.
4. Should have minimum contact time
5. Effective in presence of organic matter.
6. Should be cost effective
7. Longer residual activity.
8. Non-corrosive to the equipments.
05. SKELETAL AND
EGG SHELL DISORDERS
OF LAYING OF HENS
Farm Manager, Diamond Hatcheries (P) Ltd., Hyderabad.
Minerals comprise about 4% of most vertebrate’s animals.
Calcium and phosphorus make up more than half of this amount.
Although twelve minerals are known to be essential for poultry,
meeting the need for calcium and phosphorus are perhaps
the greatest concern because of the relative quantity and
expense required and potential for adverse effects in event
of failure to provide adequate amounts.
A generalized skeletal disorder resulting in bone fractures
is widespread in modern highly productive hybrid strain
of laying hens. The conditions popularly known as case layer
fatigue but is more correctly termed osteopenia defined
as a loss in the amount of bone tissue leading to bone fragility.
Two factors are perhaps responsible for this. The first
has been the wide spread use of battery cages resulting
in inactivity. The second has probably been the continued
selection for lines of chickens that combine very high egg
productivity with early sexual maturity, low body weight
and low feed intake.
Causes of Osteopenia:
The bone of egg laying hen is made up of two types: cancellous
bone which is largely responsible for structural strength
and medullary bone which develops at the onset of sexual
maturity (ostrogenic activity) and functions as a labile
reserve of calcium for egg shell formation. Medullary bone
has a crumbly texture and is not thought to contribute much
to the overall strength of bone.
There are two conditions, which can result in osteopenia.
1. Osteomalacia: This is caused by defective mineralisation
of bone but can be accompanied by increased resorption of
cancellous bone; any loss of later leads to structural weakness.
Nutritional deficiencies of calcium, phosphorus or vitamin
D3 can result in osteomalacia.
2. Osteporosis: In osteoporosis there is a decrease in amount
of bone tissue, the matrix of which is normally mineralized.
In hens, a decrease in amount of ancellous and cortical
bone will result in bone fragility.
1. Nutritional policies during rearing should
be aimed at ensuring adequate dietary concentration of main
nutrients associated with bone formation namely calcium,
phosphorus and vitamin D. There is no evidence to date that
bone formation rearing can be stimulated above normal rates
by other dietary modifications.
2. We shall ensure an adequate nutrient supply during the
period of onset of sexual maturity, when repartitioning
of calcium between different bone components occurs and
orbicular bnone contents decline. Thus pullets should be
transferred to a layer diet of high calcium content at the
time when photo stimulations occur. Waiting until the first
egg has been laid before making this dietary change may
accelerate medullary bone formulation at the expense of
structural bone. The form of calcium fed over this period
may be important providing limestone in particulate farm
can prevent some loss of trabecular bone.
3. Finally there is possibility of pharmacological help.
Drugs such as biphosphonate, which are used to treat human
osteoporosis, may also help to prevent the resorption of
trabecular bone in hens.
Formation of eggshell is a complex phenomenon.
A number of factors including heredity, nutrition, hormones,
environment, pathology and management are involved in the
process of eggshell formation. An egg with optimum shell
quality can be formed only when these factors are present
in ideal conditions and are functioning in hormone with
each other. The site of formation of the shell is shell
gland or uterus. An egg remains in the shell gland for about
20 hours (18-22 hours). These factors, which would accelerate
the rate of passage of eggs from the shell gland such as
disruption of the flock/lighting program, would reduce the
1. Age: Shell quality reduces with the age of the bird.
It happens because egg size increases without concomitant
increase in rate of shell deposition. Secondly calcium-absorbing
capacity of hen reduces with age from 60% at 28 weeks of
age to 50% at 60 weeks of age.
Solutions: A) Try and check egg size by limiting dietary
methionine (300 mg/bird. /day), limit the linoletic acid
(1 to 1.2%) and energy in the feed to 2400 kcal/kg. B) Increase
calcium percent of feed so that the intake is 3.8 gms/bird/day
with phosphorus intake of 400mg.C). Reduce house temperature
as much as possible.
2. Seasonal Variations: Summer has significant effect on
shell thickness, which is aggravated in aged hens as shown
in following table.
Season Age in weeks Shell thickness Microns
Winter 50 365
Summer 50 355
Winter 60 369
Summer 60 352
Summer induces reduction in nutrient intake.
High temperature causes change in acid base balance of the
body fluid due to increase in respiration rate and consequent
decrease carbonate from the blood. Since 98.4 % of shell
is calcium bicarbonate, this loss of bicarbonate hampers
shell formation. In hot weather, more water is consumed
and feed is flushed through the birds system more quickly
and fewer nutrients are assimilated.
Solutions: Increase nutrient density; maintain daily intake
of calcium (3.8gm) and available phosphorus (400mg). Increase
vitamin-minerals premix in accordance with anticipated change
in feed intake. Reduce the sodium chloride of the ration
in such a way that the intake of sodium is 180mg and that
of chloride is also 180mg. That is the ratio of Na &
Cl is 1:1. This is possible by way of supplementation sodium
from other source than sodium sulfate. Add vitamin C @ 150G/Ton
of fed under heat stress conditions.
3. Nutritional Factors: A) Calcium:
An egg contains 2-2.2 g of calcium. Total blood plasma in
a hen is 100ml on an average and the total calcium in hen’s
blood at a given time is 25mg. This means that calcium in
the blood should be replenished 80-100 times during 20 hours
of egg formation. Calcium in blood will come through two
sources feed and medullary bone. Medullary bone contains
the calcium in labile form; that is, it can be used whenever
there is deficiency in blood and redeposited whenever there
is an excess quantity. It is important that the bird has
this reserve before the onset of lay.
During night when the bird is not eating, shell deposition
process in going on in the uterus (so that egg is laid in
the morning.). During this period, if there is no calcium
or less calcium in the gut (gizzard), the bird would mobilize
its calcium reserve from medullary bones into blood for
deposition of shell. During the period, after the egg is
laid, when the egg is not in the uterus the bird replenished
its reserve for the next egg. To have sufficient calcium
deposits before the onset of lay and during the laying one
a. Start pre-lay diets containing 2.5% of calcium from 16
b. Be Starts layer ration as soon as first egg is laid and
maintain 3.7% calcium level.
c. Ensure intake of 4 g of calcium/hen/day after 45 weeks
d. Provide 1/3 calcium source as powder and 2/3 in granular
form. The granules are retained in the gizzard and provide
calcium during the non-feeding periods.
It must be understood that even at 85% production,
there are hens laying at 100% rate. Today high producing
laying hens need enough calcium to produce the strong eggshells
needed for current marketing conditions. It is necessary
therefore to provide all of the hens with a dietary level
of calcium, which is adequate for 100% production, even
if the flock average is 85%.
Indication of excess calcium is
1. Chalky deposits on eggs
2. Rough ends of eggs
3. Soft-shelled eggs. If too much calcium is ingested it
must be excreted usually as soluble calcium. This can lead
to a deficiency of phosphorus. Excess calcium also affects
the palatability of feed and affects bioavailabilityof other
B. Phosphorus: Egg shell
quality shows a biphasic relationship to phosphorus reduces
shell quality and egg production, high dietary levels of
phosphorus also have been shown to be detrimental to shell
quality. Increasing plasma levels of phosphorus may result
in reduced mobilization of calcium from the bones. Excess
may also affect acid base balance of body fluids. The requirement
of phosphorus is 420 mg/bird/day up to 40 weeks of age.
After 40 weeks, the requirement is 380 mg to 420mg.
C. Vitamin-D3: Vitamin D3
in its active form 1-25 dihydroxy which is also known as
calcitriol is essential for absorption of calcium from the
intestine and mobilization of calcium from the bones. Vitamin
D deficiency would result in formation of eggs with poor
shell quality. The conversion of vitamin D into calcitriol
takes place in liver and kidney. Therefore any disease,
which affects liver or kidney, could result in deficiency
of calsitriol, which may lead to poor shell quality.
D.VitaminC: (Ascorbic acid):
Eggshell formation consists of first laying down a network
of collagen fibres to provide a framework upon which calcification
process may proceed. The biosynthesis of collagen from amino
acids and proline require ascorbic acid particularly for
the conversion of procollagen to tropocollagen. Ascorbic
acid also plays important role in the conversion of vitamin
D3 into calcitriol in kidneys. Calcitriol along with phosphorus
and calcium is vital for calcification of eggshell. Inadequate
supply or marginal deficiency of ascorbic acid wills adversely
aggect then calcification process thus resulting in poor
textured shells. Supplementation with ascorbic acid in flocks
over 40 weeks of age consistently results in improvement
of shell quality and reduction in number of broken, cracked
Biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in chicken
takes place in the kidneys. In the hen it appears that as
the laying cycle progresses there is a greater demand for
the ascorbic acid supply to meet physiological requirements,
the most significant increase in ascorbic acid demand takes
place during acute environmental stress such as excessive
heat or cold weather. Under such circumstances it is common
to find significant decline of eggshell quality and increased
incidence of thin shell and broken eggs. Supplementation
of ascorbic acid under such conditions has shown a beneficial
effect in preventing economic loss due to poor eggshell
Biosynthesis of ascorbic acid may also be
impaired due to infections significantly impairing kidney
functions. Under such circumstances supplementation with
ascorbic acid is recommended to minimize economic loses.
During the course of infections hens experience immunological
stress, which has the effect of adjusting the metabolism,
and the nutrients to best cope and adjust to the new situation.
Under these conditions of immunological stress the requirement
for ascorbic acid increases to combat infection acid is
not available for the calcification process. This in turn
resulting poor eggshell quality.
E. Micro-Elements: Some of
the trace elements like magnesium, manganese and zinc are
important for shell quality. Generally they are adequate
in normal ration. In the event of shell quality problems
the mineral mix should be checked for adequacy of these
microelements. Excess Sodium Chloride in Drinking Water:
If the chloride content of drinking water is more than 600mg/litre,
it affects the shell quality.
a. Infectious Bronchitis:
Flocks affected with I.B. show poor internal and external
egg quality. Eggs may be smaller than normal, misshapen
and corrugated. The shells may have calcareous deposits
be thinner than normal or may be absent entirely.
b. Adenovirus (EDS76): The combination of a sudden fall
in egg production associated with thin shelled, soft shelled
and shell less eggs in a flock of apparently healthy birds
is almost diagnostic of EDS-76. The other diseases affecting
c. Mycotoxins: Decreased egg production and diminished external
egg quality is typical of mycotoxicosis.
3. Worm Load: Internal parasites affect nutrient absorption
and thereby the shell quality.
a) Frequency and time of collection: Frequent collections
reduce eggshell breakage.
b) Damage due to the cages: Field experience has shown that
an increase in egg breakage is observed in older units where
damage or distortion of wire cages is observed.
06. VISCERAL GOUT-
A MATTER OF CRACKING THE CRYSTALS
Farm Manager, Diamond Hatcheries (P) Ltd., Hyderabad.
Gout or urolithiasis is a metabolic disorder. It is condition
in which kidney functions have decreased to the point where
uric acid accumulates in the blood and body fluids. The
uric acid subsequently precipitates as sodium calcium urate
crystals, particularly in the kidneys. The damaged kidneys
are characterized by atrophied or missing portions of the
kidney lobes, and remaining kidney tissue that is swollen
and white with urates.
Function of the Kidneys:
Removal of metabolic waste & toxin products, to maintain
chemical composition of body fluids, to conserve fluid &
vital electrolytes, to take care of production of hormones
which regulate blood pressure and Haemopoeisis.
Pathogenesis of Gout:
When renal function stops, uric acid, which is normally
excreted by the kidney, is deposited in any place where
blood circulates. Since a high percentage of blood is circulated
to the abdominal organs such as the heart, liver and kidneys,
the lesions associate with gout are most pronounced in these
organs, A bird with no kidney function will die within 36
Causes of Gout: The cause of gout is multifactorial:
Nutritional factors, Infectious factors, Toxins,
1. Excess dietary calcium feed to immature
2. Diet high with calcium but contain low amount of avaiiable
3. Sodium-bi-carbonate (which is used to improve shell quality
in summer) fed to birds suffering from mild gout.
4. Excess protein (almost 30%)
5. Amino acid imbalance (especially lysine & methionine
6. Vitamin A deficiency over a long period of time
7. Fish meal, deoiled GNC adulterated with urea
8. Poorly processed soya meal containing high level of urease.
All these factors can damage the kidneys.
1. Four nephrogenic strain sib virus namely
Gray, Holte, Australian T strain & M-41
2. Unclassified IB viruses isolated from birds suffering
from acute urolithiasis
3. Nephropathogenic lesion due to IBD virus
4. Avain Nephritis Virus (ANV)
Toxins & Toxic Substances:
phytotoxins, Inorganic or chemical factors such as heavy
metals, agricultural chemicals, pesticides, disinfectants
etc, Chemotherapeutics like sulpha drugs, Erythromycin,
Gentamycin etc. Sulpha drugs are eliminated from the system
via the kidneys and tend to have a low threshold for crystallsing,
especially in a basic pH metabolic environment. Gentamycin
injection decreases the activity of certain enzymes important
to the gluconeogenic activity of chicks and lowers the gluconeogenic
capacity. For unfed chicks gluconeogenesis is the sole source
of glucose for glycogen synthesis. Any gluconeogenesis that
occurs is dependent upon conversion of certain amino acids
to glucose, and this process requires increased nitrogen
production. Thus impaired kidney function in the face of
increased uric acid production in unfed chicks could result
in the development of visceral gout. Minerals and vitamins
such as calcium, phosphorus, fluoride, sodium and D3 are
potentially toxic to chickens. Chicks are more sensitive,
probable because their kidneys are not fully developed.
Sodium chloride toxicity. Poor ventilation: Poor ventilation
oxygen supply/CO2 ammonia builds up in hatchery and poultry
Hereditary predisposition may also play a
part in out breaks of gout, influencing the autoimmune reactions
of affected chicks and susceptibility of different strains
of chickens. Water deprivation, dehydration due to holding
of chicks in the hatcher for long period. Chilled water
especially during winter.
Knowing what factors can cause gout, it is
possible to control and prevent the occurrence of the disease.
There are several precautions to be taken:
1. Pullets need no more than one percent of
calcium up to 15 weeks of age. High calcium in the diet
of pullets can cause serious kidney damage. If pre-layer
ration is being used, from around 16 weeks of age up to
five percent production, calcium content of 2.5% should
2. The level and the calcium, phosphorus ration
in the feed should be reviewed and 8:1 in layer diets.
3. Dietary mycotoxins level should be kept
as low as possible. It is advisable toad mycotoxins inhibitors
to the feed.
4. Avoid deprivation of water
5. Do not sodium bi carbonate.
6. Review IB vaccinations programme. IB vaccination
on day one has shown promising results in preventing gout
in broilers. Note that if the birds need to be revaccinated
with live bronchitis vaccine, this should be done before
the birds receive a high-calcium layer ration.
7. Avoid using de-oiled soy cake or fishmeal
of poor quality. Use properly roasted de-oiled soy cake
any whole fish only.
8. Avoid using antibiotics like gentamycin,
sulpha drugs.etc., especially in chicks.
9. NEPHTONE (from INDIAN HERBS) @ 4ml/100
birds for three weeks.
1. Acidification of urine with ammonium chloride as mentioned
below helps to control gout.
1st week- 1kg/ton
2nd week- 2kg/ton
3rd week – 3kg/ton
Once gout is controlled, gradual withdrawal is desired.
However some level of treatment may be needed for the life
of the flock. Ammonium chloride may cause wet litter &
poor shell quality due to metabolic acidosis. Acidified
urine may inhibit the formation of urate stones but it may
not dissolve the already formed urate stones.
2. Vitamin A at higher level.
3. Vitamin C at higher level. Kidney is the
main site of biosynthesis of vit-c. It is possible that
in case of gout, kidneys may not synthesize the vitamin
C to the optimum level.
4. Vitamin D at higher level. Kidneys the
site of production of active vitamin D metabolite. So birds
with damaged kidneys may benefit from a vitamin D supplement.
5. Finely ground maize shoulder given to the
chicks on the firs t day and chick mash from the second
day onward. This reduces gout substantially provided vitamins
and minerals are balanced adequately.
6. NEPHTONE @ 8 – 10 ML/100 birds for
10 days gives good result.
07. FATTY LIVER
Regional Technical Manger,
Indian Herbs Specialities.
It was more than 30 years ago when a poultry specialist
mentioned for the first time about Fatty Liver Syndrome.
This metabolic disorder is distinguished by an abnormal
deposition of fat in the abdomen and fatty degeneration
of the liver. An effected flock is usually of very good
condition with a higher body weight compared with the age
and production stage. The condition has become economically
significant due to lower egg production and mortality above
average. A little information on liver physiology and lipotropic
factors makes us to understand Fatty Liver syndrome better.
Liver is the chief site of lipid production in chickens.
Diet contains only 2-5% fat and the contribution of dietary
fat to total fat within the body is a minor fraction. Lipogenesis
de nova in liver is the important factor for lipid content
of the body. Excess carbohydrates in the diet are converted
to lipid within the body. Excess amino acids can also contribute
to lipid generation, but the energy required to convert
excess amino acids to lipid makes amino acids not important
sources of de nova lipid synthesis. The normal lipid content
in liver is 5% and it increases to 30% in pathological conditions.
Lipids absorbed from the food in the intestines and that
synthesized in liver is transported as lipoproteins. Liver
secretes High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) and Very Low Density
Lipoproteins (VLDL). Lipoproteins are made of phospholipids
Fatty liver may occur due to 2 main reasons:
Increased synthesis of triacylglycerols: Increased
energy intake, impairment of energy and protein metabolism
leads to increased accumulation of triacylglycerols in liver.
Impairement of lipoprotein synthesis: A defect
in the synthesis of VLDL,HDL lipoproteins and dietary deficiency
of lipotropic factors result in the impairment of lipid
transport leading to its accumulation in liver.
Factors leading to fatty liver are:
· Most of the researchers believe that the influence
of feed is the primary cause of FLS. The other mentioned
factors regarding environment may either strengthen or weaken
the consequence of an imbalance of feed. Over consumption
of energy over a long period leads to increased fat in the
liver, which may end finally in fatty liver.
· Ingestion of the poisonous elements in the feed,
toxins arising from mould (especially Aflatoxin) can be
· Erucic acid and glucosinolates in Rapeseed meal
can lead to liver degeneration.
· Nutritional deficiency of the lipotropic factors
like choline and some of the B complex vitamins such as
B1, B6, Biotin, Folic Acid, B12, Pantothenic Acid. Because
most of the B Complex vitamins are involved in the metabolism
of Fat, Carbohydrate and proteins and its deficiency in
feed leads to increased conversion of fat from energy sources
and accumulation of lipids in liver.
· Feed deficient in protein or amino acid deficiency
or amino acid imbalance.
· Supplementation of choline aggravates FLS incidence
if the cause was due to Biotin deficiency.
· Caged birds and high environmental temperature
increases the incidence of FLS. Hence increased incidence
is noticed usually during summer period.
· Estrogens secreted at maturity enhance hepatic
lipogenesis and hence the incidence is more sensitive for
Prevention and Therapy:
Excess energy intake is the most important cause of FLS,
hence reducing the energy content in the feed or restricting
feed intake decreases the incidence. Decreasing the daily
ME intake by reducing the ME value of the feed or by means
of feed restriction. If the carbohydrate content is decreased
by means of increasing amount of fat, which is rich in linoletic
acid, the ration becomes less sensitive to FLS. Removing
the ingredient contaminated with toxins. Adequate supplementation
of choline, the lipotropic factor in the diet.
Choline: Choline is essential for the synthesis
of phospholipids, which is the component of lipo tropic
factor. Choline is the most abundant group of phospholipids
in the cell membranes. Choline has essential metabolic functions
for which neither betaine nor methionine can substitute.
They are as follows.
a. As a constituent of phospholipids.
b. As lipotropic factor
c. As precursor of acetylcholine synthesis, the transmission
agent for impulses along the sympathetic nervous system.
A number of factors influence a hen’s requirement
for choline for ex: age, feed intake and dietary protein
or methionine levels. In diets with high content of M+C
the choline supplementation required may be relatively low
and in diets with lower M+C may need higher choline levels.
Though Choline is available in the feed ingredients, the
bioavailabilityof ofcholine in feed sources varies. The
recommended supplementary levelsof choline (100%) is: Broilers:
500-800 ppm Layers: 250-500 ppm. The above recommendations
are given considering the variation of choline in raw materials
and its bioavailability.
Some B complex vitamins like folic acid, B12, etc., play
the role of lipotropic factors indirectly. Vitamin B1 and
Biotin plays an essential role in the energy metabolism.
Deficiency of biotin results in increased liponeogenesis
leading to fatty liver. Supplementation of choline aggravates
the incidence of FLS if the cause was due to biotin deficiency.
So a FLS condition may be well and easily treated with supplementing
both biotin and choline together.
Vitamin E possibly in combination with Selenium
has a positive effect on the synthesis and transport of
fats. Adequate supplementation of the above vitamins aid
in reducing the incidence of FLS. Finally, success in prevention
of Fatty liver lies in correcting the basis cause combined
with good treatment procedures.
08. DRINKING WATER
ITS QUALITY & MANAGEMENT
Sr.Scientist, Project Directorate on Poultry (ICAR),
Water is an essential nutrient and is vital for all living
beings. Animals or birds can survive without food for few
weeks but will die in few days if water is not available.
The importance of water in poultry can be realized form
the fact that it constitutes about 85% body weight in day
old chick, 55% in adult chicken and about 65% in egg. It
is the major component of blood and other body fluids. Water
helps indigestion, transport of nutrients in the body, regulation
of body temperature and elimination of waste. Under normal
climatic conditions, chickens drink about twice as much
as they eat. However, during summer this goes up
Table1. Water consumption at different ages (ml/bird/day)
Source of water is either well water or surfacewater.
Majority of the poultry farms use ground water (open or
bore weeks) for providing drinking water to birds. Water
from ponds, diatheses, canals or rivers can be used if it
is pure water from rain. However, this type of water is
generally polluted with pesticides, sewage water, and wastewater
from other farms, industries or sewage plants. On the contrary,
water drawn from a well is microbiologically very safe,
but often contain high levels of chemicals/ salts.
Water quality determinants
Good quality water is the one, which has acceptable qualities
in its physical, chemical and microbiological parameters,
so that it can be safely used for drinking, it will be clear,
tasteless, odorless and colorless. Ideally bacterial contaminants
should be zero. It should not contain harmful inclusions;
fitness of water for poultry consumption can be assessed
by looking for the presence of the following contaminants/by
using the following measures.
1) Nitrogen compounds: Nitrogen
present in living organisms upon death gets degraded into
ammonium. Nitrites and nitrates are produced during this
reaction, which are highly toxic. Nitrite is a very harmful
component as it combines with haemoglobin thereby reduces
oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. This leads to poor
growth rate, anorexia and poor coordination. When the concentrations
are over 1000mg/litre, the birds will die immediately. In
milder cases blood pressure may drop, and hypertrophy of
kidneys is seen.
2) Sulpha compounds: They are present in
the form of sulphide, sulphate and sulphite, of these sulphide
is more harmful. Its presence can be smelled even at very
low concentrations (0.02 mg/litre)-rotten egg smell. Intake
of sulphate results in watery droppings, reduced growth
and egg production. Water may behave bitter taste, if ferrous
and manganese sulphates are present.
3) pH : Water pH in the range 5-8 is acceptable
and extremes below and above this indicate possible industrial
contamination. Poultry tolerate lower pH, better than higher
ones. Water corrosive. While, high pH indicates high levels
of calcium and magnesium, which block water pipelines.
4) Mineral contaminants: Presence of inorganic
ions like calcium, magnesium, fluorine and sodium is commonly
seen and such water is called hard water/saline water. The
water can be tested for this. When hard water is boiled,
salts precipitate at the bottom of the vessel, which is
not seen with soft water. Hard water leads to building up
of deposits and formation of scale in the water pipeline
system, which are unsuitable for cleaning. Hard water also
causes increased water consumption, wet droppings and drops
in production and reduces effectiveness of water medications
and cleaning agents. In layers, shell quality problems also
may arise. Wherever such waters cannot be avoided, supplementation
of vitaminC may helpful. However, this is only vitaminC
may be helpful however, this is only preventive and curative.
Therefore, in those farms where the water ishard, provide
vitamin C regularly from maturity of hens till end of lay.
Poultry can tolerate high levels of Flouring. However, if
the levels are too high (>150 to 200ppm), depression
in performance is seen.
5) Miscellaneous contaminants: Other contaminants
that may be rarely seen are pesticides, herbicides, industrial
residues and petroleum products, Heavy metals like lead,
cadmium, copper, zinc and mercury are also found in water
obtained from urban and peri-urban areas. These are signs
of industrial pollution.
6) Turbidity: Turbidity of water indicates
the suspension of materials like clay, silt, algae or organic
materials. The levels should be always less than 5 ppm.
Turbidity can be reduced by filtration.
7) Bacteria: Presence of bacteria in water
is typically a result of surface contamination by organic
materials. Pathogens that are found in water are Salmonellae,
shigella spp., Campylobatcer spp., enteroviruses, free-living
amoebae, giardia and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Indicator
organism’s presence in a sample of water denotes that
intestinal pathogens could be present and that the supply
is potentially gangerous to health. The 2 groups that are
most commonly used as primary indicators of fecal pollution
are the coliforms and the faecal coliforms (E.Coli)
Avoiding the problems with good water management
a) Water quality monitoring:
While setting up of a poultry farm, the water
available on the premises should be tested for its suitability
for poultry. Quality guidelines have been established for
the various parameters the water that is confirming to these
standards only should be given to the birds, the analysis
can be got done by any standard laboratory, located in the
area. Similarly, water on an old farm also needs to be tested
periodically for knowing the presence of contaminants and
its current quality.
Sampling of water for analysis:
The sample that is collected should represent the water
to be tested and that it should not be contaminated at the
time of collection or before examination. For this, the
following guidelines are to be kept in mind.
1. The bottle should be sterile and contain sodium, thiosulphate
to neutralize any chlorine (0.1ml of 1.8% sodium thiosulphate
for every bottle).
2. From tap, allow water to flow for 2-3 min and then collect.
3. From surface waters, place the bottleneck downwards below
the surface to a depth of 30cmpointing towards the current.
If there is no current, push the bottle forwards horizontally.
During any stage, the inside of the bottle should not come
in contact with hand.
4. Remove the cap and fill the bottle and close the cap
immediately. Leave some space on the top to facilitate mixing
prior to testing.
5. Minimum of 100ml should be collected and 100 ml if Salmonella
6. Samples should no be exposed to light and transported
to the lab as quickly as possible.
7. Samples should be examined within 6hrs and not more than24hrs.
Addition of certain additives like medicines,
vaccines, vitamins etc., to drinking water may create a
polysaccharide layer in the pipe system known as the biofilm
in which microbes will develop and contaminate the water,
Similarly, mineral deposits (particularly calcium) known
as lime or scale will also build-up inside drinker lines
and provide a shelter for microbes, both can block the drinkers.
Dirty water supply lines full of scale hide all kinds of
microbes in the biofilm. High temperatures and low water
flow will further trigger resulting in explosion of unwanted
algae and bacteria in the water system. Unclean drinking
water also leads to reduced water intake. Polluted lines
can also reduce feed intake and efficacy of water additives.
c) Cleaning of pipelines & use of softeners
1. First remove the biofilm and scale from
the inside of the pipelines. A stabilized combination of
hydrogen peroxide and organic acids will dissolve the debris
in couple of hours. It is necessary to flush the pipelines
to eliminate all residues.
2. Continued water treatment will avoid build up of scale/biofilm
and there by allow the system to function properly and the
3. Chlorine also decontaminates the water but doesn’t
bind minerals and makes water more alkaline. Similarly microbes
residing inside biofilm also escape chlorine action.]
4. The problems are more at the end of the pipeline where
the movement of water is very less.
5. The cleaning agent used should be a stabilized product,
as it should last long enough to reach the very last nipple
at the end of the house.
6. Acidified drinking water not only reduces the level of
pathogens in the water, but also improves the digestion
of feed and the performance.
Water softener is used to reduce hardness and operate through
ion exchange mechanism. Polyphosphates and electrical/magnetic
devices are also used for preventing scale formation. The
latter work by altering electrical charges of minerals.
d) Use of Water sanitizers
The water can be kept suitable for drinking
by regular use of sanitizers, which minimize the microbial
contamination. The ideal sanitizer should behave the following
1. It should not be toxic to birds.
2. The commercial products should be used as per the recommendations
of the manufacturer and should never add little more to
get better results.
3. The product should be colorless, tasteless and odorless.
4. Should be safe to handle.
5. Should be safe to be released in to the environment through
the sewage system.
6. Should cause minimal corrosion.
7. The water system should be cleaned between batches.
Use of sanitizer helps in disinfecting the
drinking water. By this, it will be possible to inactivate
the major avian viral pathogens (EDS,ND,IBD,Influenza) and
to remove bacterial disease agents. (E.Coli, Pasturella,
Pseudomonos). Several products are available in the market
for the purpose. They are based on disinfectants like chlorine,
hydrogen peroxide, ozone etc. Similarly, UV irradiantion
is also commonly used for killing the pathogenic microbes
in water. Nowadays, online dozers are available for releasing
the sanitizer at the preset dose into the water flow in
Chlorination using variousforms (gas or as
a salt of hypo-chlorite) of chlorine is the most commonly
adopted method. Chlorine causes serious damage to enzymes
or nucleic acids or the cell walls of bacteria. However,
its efficacy reduces in presence of organic matter and it
causes corrosion particularly to rubber/ plastic components.
Chlorine is highly effective at pH 6 to 8, and loses its
efficacy at pH 8. Chlorine remains effective hours after
the initial treatment, even after the water leaves the treatment
point. Nevertheless it is important to see that the residual
chlorine level remains under 5ppm at birds level. Common
bleaching powder @ 2g/1000 Ltrs may be given. Alternatively,
several commercial products are available in the market
based on chlorine/iodine which can be used @ 10ml/100ml
Ltrs of water.
It is an unstable 3atom allotype of oxygen
and is a potent oxidant and a very effective bactericide
and verified (2ppm is ideal). The disadvantage with this
is that the pipe network should have high integrity as it
is injected in to the water tank and there is no residual
iii) Ultra violet treatment
UV light in the wavelength range of 240 to
280nm is a potent germicidal agent, as it acts through generation
of high-energy photons which cause severe damage to the
DNA and RNA of the microbes, At an UV dose of 4mws/cm2,
most of the waterborne gram negative bacteria (E.coli, plastridium,
V.cholera etc.,) are eliminated. However, for removing the
enteroviruses, a higher dose f 32mws/cm2 is required. For
UV to be effective the water should be free from turbidity
and dissolved slats. In contrast to chlorine (30 to 60 minutes),
UV can disinfect water in a few seconds. Most suited for
bacteriological problems. Since nothing is added, there
are no residues.
iv) Hydrogen Peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide is also is a very potent
disinfectant and is effective particularly in the presence
of organic matter (2.5%).
UV) and chlorination may give much
desired effect than either of them.
d) Water Filtration
Sand filtration: Water is allowed to pass
through filter bed of sand at a velocity of 2 to 5 m3/hour.
The advantages are reduced particulate matter, nitrogen
and biological loads in water.
Membrane filtration: They are generally made of nitro-cellulose
and remove virtually all suspended solids and also feacal
coliforms, parasitic eggs and virus loads.
Zeolite filtration: this ideal for clarification,
colour reduction and purification, of surface water. These
will act as molecular sieves and cation exchangers. They
are highly useful in purifying water for their adsorptive
capacities for organics, cations, bacterial and viral loads.
IV. General Precautions in the farm.
1. Take utmost care in ensuring availability
of water all through the day. Non-availability of water
by 20% leads to about 18-20% drop in feed intake in broilers.
2. Train the day-old chicks to drink water from the waterers
while leaving in the shed.
3. Provide adequate number of waterers in the farm so as
to ensure optimum water space for each bird..
Water space requirements (inches):
Chick& growers Leniar troughs 0.25 ( 0-3wks)
0.75 (>6 wks)
Bell type drinker 0.15 (0-3 wks)
0.25 (3-6 wks)
0.50 (>6 wks)
Layers 1 nipple/3-4 layers
4. Check the nipples daily and avoid blocking
of nipples by salts/scales. Further, regularly check the
water level in the tank. Looking for water in the small
top provided inside the shed for regulating water pressure
in the shed will ensure adequate water supply through nipples.
Provision for a transparent pipe on either side of the shed
will help in monitoring the water level in the nipple pipeline
5. If nipples are used in broiler house, increase the height
of nipple as the bird ages. For instance at day 1, keep
the nipple at 4” height, at 7day-7”, at 14day
– 9”, at 21day – 11”, at 28day –
13” at 35day – 14.5” and during last week
keep at 16”.
6. Avoid water spillage in the shed from nipples/drinkers/waterers.
Properly adjust the lever/screw in bell type drinkers to
avoid water spillage. The weight placed below the drinker
also needs to be as per the manufacturer’s recommendation.
Increase height of waterers/nipple as the bird’s age.
Remove the damp litter around the waterers periodically,
7. Keep the water cool in summer by adding ice, particularly
during the afternoon. Water in the pipeline also gets heated
up as it flows from one end to the other end of the shed.
This can be minimized by cooling the shed using foggers.
/ Periodically flush the pipeline during summer to remove
hot water from the nipple system.
8. Rats damage the plastic pipeline leading to water spillage
in the shed. Protect the plastic pipes with rodent-proof
9. Wherever water vaccination is followed, discontinue after
sanitizer at least for a week. If it is unavoidable, add
skim milk powder @50g/20lt so as to neutralize any residual
chlorine in water. Then only add the vaccine to water. The
quantity of water required should be calculated based on
the normal water intake of the birds. Before mixing vaccine
in water, withdraw water for about 2hrs. This will ensure
uniform intake of vaccine in the flock. In summer, mixing
of ice (1kg/10lt) will cool down the water temperature and
improve the vaccine efficacy.
10. Do not dump litter or dead birds near the water source
(bore well, canal or tank).
11. Following debeaking, chicks will find difficulty in
taking water from nipples due to pain on the beak. There
fore, provide water in troughs/open bowels for few days
till the beak is healed.
12. Close the lid of water tanks for preventing contamination
with dust (in breeder housed particularly) and development
13. The colour of the water tanks located on top of the
shed may be painted white for reflecting solar heat during
14. Keep the waterers (bell drinkers, linear waterers, water
troughs) clean all the time. This is very important, as
all the precautions that are taken to maintain good water
quality throughout the supply system will fail if water
at the end point is contaminated. Therefore, clean the waterer’s
15. Contamination of water with feaces leads to microbial
contamination (coccidian oocytesm enteric viruses, salmonella
and camphylobactor). Therefore, contamination if water with
feaces should be avoided.
16. Wherever troughs are used, cover the container with
grills so as to prevent birds from entering the trough and
contaminating water with excreta.
17. To prevent spoilage of water with surface water, the
drill hole has to be closed around the water pipe. This
is very important where the well is close to the production
facilities and wastewater from manure can leak into the
18. Surface water whenever used should be free from bacterial
contamination, industrial and pesticide residue contamination.
Table: 2 Drinking water quality standards for poultry
09. IMPORTANCE OF
IN ANIMAL FEED ANALYSIS
- Dr.V.Ramasubba reddy
Head of the department of po8ltry science (Retd), Hyderabad.
Nutrient and non-nutrient content in ingredients/feeds vary
depending on several factors. These include; Soil, plant/
animal species and variety, environment, rainfall, maturity,
leafiness, harvest storage, plant diseases, weeds insects
etc. Laboratory analysis provides the analysis (nutritional
and non-nutritional) the ingredients or the feeds contain.
The feed ingredient/ feed may agree or may not agree with
the available values published in book. Feed ingredients
can be purchased based and their nutrient and non-nutrient
Feeds for livestock can be formulated more
economically and accurately. Livestock and poultry are most
productive when fed a balanced feed according to their nutrient
needs. Feed ingredients available may or in most cases may
not contain nutrients and non-nutrients as per book values.
Formulations of feeds as per book values results in over
or under values in nutrients in feed, This results in uneconomical
production of livestock products. All feed ingredients have
to be analyzed that substantially influence feed cost or
livestock performance. This assumes importance when differences
are high between estimated and actual nutrient consumption
of the ingredients. Several nutrient and non-nutrients can
be the basis for economic formulation.
Specific feeds can be used to deferent livestock.
High quality feeds are fed to livestock and poultry of high
productivity and vice versa. This results in proper utilization
of feed ingredients available in the ecountry. Production
practices like fertilization, time of harvest, method of
harvest, etc., and management practices can be modified,
provided analytical values are available.
Storage period of feed ingredients/ feeds
may be determined on the analyzed values. Moist feeds may
allow mold growth, spoilage, and overheating. Feed ingredients/feeds
can be used to livestock depending on the concentration
of toxicants. The levels of the feed ingredients/feeds may
be set so that the feed ingredients/feeds are safe for livestock
and the livestock products are safe for man.
Methods of Feed Testing:
The methods of test may be physical, chemical,
biological etc. Physical parameters such as sight, smell,
and touch can be applied at the farm level. Visually, stage
of maturity at harvest, foreign material or pests, color,
and leafiness can be detected. Musty and foul odors can
indicate lower quality due to deterioration in storage.
Physical evaluation alone is insufficient in feed evaluation.
This can be combined with chemical analysis to get more
reliable values. Some times, biological test on laboratory
animals or species of livestock on which feeds used becomes
necessary to evaluate feeds.
Analysis to be made
Nutrients of primary concern in feeding livestock are:
1) Moisture (Dry matter)
2) Energy (GE, TDN, ME, NE,
4) Fiber (NFE, NDF, ADF)
5) Protein (True protein, Non-protein nitrogen, Soluble
protein, Urea, NDICP, ADICP, Digestible protein,)
9) Contaminants (Inherent, Accumulated, Biological, Metabolic).
10. BALANCED FEEDING
FOR BETTER EGGSHELL QUALITY
Sr.Scientist, Project Directorate on Poultry (ICAR),
Poor eggshell quality increases the risk of eggshell breakage,
contaminating the surrounding eggs. The shelf life of the
eggs thus contaminated gets reduced, besides lowering the
consumer acceptability. As per one report, about 7.77% of
eggs collected are either shell less, thin shelled or ultra-thin
shelled. The estimated loss of eggs from point of lay to
consumer point, ranges from 13-20% in developed countries.
The loss may be much more in tropical countries, where the
environmental temperature goes beyond 450 C especially in
The majority of the inorganic component of
eggshell is made up of calcium (Ca) in the form of carbonate.
Predominantly, the shell Ca is derived from feed and carbonate
from metabolic source. Normally, dietary imbalance in Ca,
phosphorus (P), cholecalciferol, trace minerals, fluorine,
magnesium, ascorbic acid, amino acids etc, in pre-layer
and layer diets influences the eggshell quality.
Layers require more Ca in diet than growers for shell formation.
In order to improve the Ca reserves in medullary bone of
pullets, increase in dietary Ca level during the pre-pubertal
stage (3-4 weeks before onset of laying) has been recommended.
In majority of commercial practices, 2% Ca is included in
the diets during this period. The ideal situation for increasing
the dietary Ca level from 1% to 2% is during 17 weeks of
age. This level is maintained until the bird reaches 5%
production after which a shift is made to the higher CA
LEVEL (3.6%). The body weight of the bird in relation to
age and lighting schedule should be considered while increasing
the Ca level in the pre-layer diet.
Calcium: Availability of ionic Ca and carbonate in the shell
gland is essential for sound shell formation. The commercial
layer producing more than 300 eggs with an average egg size
of 55g requires about 650 to 700g Ca for an year, which
is equivalent to more than 30 times that found in the body
of a hen Low level of Ca in diet (1.5%) reduces the shell
quality with in 24 hours. Sub-optimal levelsof dietary Ca
(<3.0%) increases feed intake and this in-turn increase
egg weight resulting in decreased shell deposition relative
to the egg size. Low dietary Ca also forces to utilize higher
levels (30-40%) of skeletal Ca for shell formation Absorbed
Ca provides only 60% of the Ca required during the immediate
shell formation. Ca required from its skeleton. An optimum
dietary Ca level minimizes the dependence on skeletal Ca
for eggshell formation.
Dietary Ca requirement also depends on Ca
source and particle size of Ca source. Layers may need marginally
less Ca in diets based on grit form of Ca source (oyster
shell grit, stone grit, marble chips etc.) than those fed
on powder form. The results from our laboratory indicated
that for optimum shell quality and egg production, a layer
requires 3.5 g daily and higher intakes did not show any
beneficial affects. The Ca requirement is based on age of
the layer. Old layers require higher Ca (4-4.25g/hen/d),
compared to young pullets (37-52 weeks) for optimum shell
quality. The increase in Ca requirement with age could be
due to the increased Ca requirement for increased egg weight,
reduced ability of Ca absorption from the digestive system
and resorption from medullary bone. Few reports indicated
that additional supplementation of Ca (2g/hen) than recommended
improved the shell quality in flocks with poor shell quality.
Variation in intake of Ca on egg production and shell quality
in layers (196-336) days of age)
Calcium source: Few authors
reported oyster shell to be more beneficial than limestone
for optimum shell quality. The poor shell quality on limestone-based
diets may be due to the magnesium toxicity. Dolomite limestone
contains higher concentration of magnesium (5-10%). Practically
there was no difference between good quality limestone and
shell grit in maintaining eggshell quality when the requirement
of Ca is met. However, considerable variation exist in Ca
content of limestone (22-40%) such variation in Ca content
in limestone may cause Ca imbalance when used in diets without
estimating the Ca content.
Particle size of Ca source:
The eggshell formation is at maximum approximately during
7h post ovulation and reaches peak during 2-3 hours before
oviposition. Ionic Ca should be especially at peak hours
of shell formation (usually 2300-0400h). Therefore, residence
time of Ca source in the digestive system is a during the
peak phase of shell formation. Pulverized Ca source gets
absorbed and excreted quickly, so Ca may not be available
during the lodges in the digestive system (gizzard) and
Ca during night i.e. in the active phase of the of feed
and especially Ca source for layers is 1-1.5 mm. However,
the article size of Ca receives adequate dietary Ca. But,
in aged layers (>45 weeks) large particles of Ca source
improves the eggshell quality even though the hen receiving
adequate Ca (more than 3.75 g/day). The in vitro solubility
of Ca supplement in 0.1 NHCL (at 420 for minutes) should
be more than 47% for better Ca availability. It is always
desirable to have 35-65% of Ca supplement in grit form and
remaining as powder form.
Phosphorus: The shell
quality tends to decrease above and below the requirement
levels in the diet. Many researchers did not find any beneficial
affect on shell quality of egg production due to feeding
higher available P (0.35-4.0% NPP). The recent literature
on P requirements in layers indicates much lower levels
of dietary P (0.2-0.25%) compared to those recommended a
decade back. The data from our laboratory indicated an intake
of 237 mg available P/day was adequate for optimum egg production
and shell quality.
Variation in intake of available P on egg production and
shell quality in layers (266-350 d of age)
is essential for eggshellformation for its involvement in
the synthesis of ca binding protein (Ca, BP), which facilitates
the Ca absorption/ transportation in intestine and shell
gland. In practical diets, the concentration of supplemental
cholecalciferol (1200-1800ICU/kg) is much higher than the
recommended levels (300ICU/kg). The movement of Ca across
the shell gland occurs through the association with the
cholecalciferol dependent CaBP. Metabolites of cholecalciferol
are more potent than the parent compound in Ca and P metabolism.
At inclusion of 0.57 mcg/kg diet, 1U – OH cholecalciferol
was 10.9 and 6.7 times more active than as active as cholecalciferol
for shell thickness and shell strength respectively. 25-hydroxy
cholecalciferol was 2.8 times as active as cholecalciferol
for both shell thickness and strength. Providing optimum
amounts of Ca, P and cholecalciferol in diet, the skeleton
stores of Ca and P are not utilized for shell calcification.
But, the skeletal imbalance of any of these nutrients in
the diet, the P depleted from bone source gets accumulated
in the blood. The excess P in blood inturn adversely affects
the shell quality.
Ascorbic acid: Normally ascorbic
acid is synthesized in chicken. Synthesis of this vitamin
is impaired at higher environmental temperatures. Ascorbic
acid promotes mineral mobilization from skeleton; thereby
increasing the plasma Ca. Ascorbic acid is also essential
for synthesis of steroid hormones, shell organic matrix
and bile acid formation. Ascorbic acid is involved in Ca
absorption thorough intestine or resorption from skeleton,
stimulation of cholecalciferol metabolite (1.25 (OH) 2D3)
production. Eggshell quality and laying performance in old
layers (71 to 90 weeks) is known to increase with ascorbic
acid (100mg/kg) supplementation in combination with cholecalciferol
(2000ICU/kg). The beneficial affects of ascorbic acid supplementation
on eggshell quality were reported at dietary levels up to
500-mg/kg diets. Supplementation of ascorbic acid is more
beneficial when used under stress conditions (environmental
or nutritional) as it helps in reducing the concentration
of corticosterones in heat stressed bird. Ascorbic acid
supplementation was found beneficial when added to diets
containing optimum levels of Ca (3.32%), but not of sub-optimal
levels of ca (2.8%).
Fluorine: Fluorine (F) is
the normal contaminant present in raw Rock phosphate. The
rock phosphate based P supplements in variably contain fluorine
at varying levels. An intake of (F) from rock phosphate
up to 476 mg/hen/day did not alter the egg production and
shell quality compared to control. Though the shell quality
was not affected with intake of F up to 1015ng/hen/d, egg
production decreased compared to those fed with no added
F in diet. Higher levelsof dietary fluorine decreased shell
quality (shell breaking strength, shell weight and thickness).
Raw rock phosphate containing > 3% fluorine may not be
suitable to use as sole source of P in layer diet. Supplementation
of aluminium (1:1ratio) can minimize the ill affects of
Variation in intake of fluorine on egg production and shell
quality in layers (252-364 d of age)
Trace minerals: Certain trace
minerals have a significant role in formation of shell organic
matrix. Copper and manganese are associated in shell membrane
formation, shell morphology and shell thickness. Manganese
plays a pivotal role in synthesis of protein mucopolysaccharide,
which is the major component of the shell organic matrix.
Copper is required for cross-linking of lysine in shell
membrane. Copper deficiency leads to reduced formation of
cross-linking in the shell matrix. Eggs produced from copper
deficient bird are abnormal in shape; size (narrow end is
less distinct) and shell may be wrinkled. Manganese deficiency
results in thinner eggshell and may have translucent areas.
Supplementing higher levelsof manganese in diet can obviate
Protein and amino acids: The levels of protein and amino
acids in diet may not directly influence the shell quality.
But, by manipulating the concentrations of these nutrients,
the shell quality can be improved especially in older hens,
where the size of the egg is bigger. Since, the amount of
shell (CaCO3) deposition in an egg is constant, irrespective
of the size of the egg, the shell quality can be improved
y reducing the egg size with alterations in dietary concentration
of protein, methionine, linoletic acid etc. Various Reports
also indicated improved shell quality in layers fed low
protein (17.0Vs 19.5%) diet.
Mycotoxins: Majority of mycotoxins
cause pathological lesions in liver, kidney and other visceral
organs, which are involved in metabolism of Ca, P and cholecalciferol.
Aflatoxins are known to decrease conversion of cholecalciferol
to its active metabolites and increase renal excretion of
Ca and P in layers. Similarly, citrinin and ochrotoxin hamper
the renal function when fed at toxic levels. Though, mycotoxins
hamper metabolism of several nutrients required for shell
calcification, no adverse effect on shell quality was reported
even due to feeding mycotoxins at toxic doses for shell
production. The lack of response on shell quality may be
due to concomitant reduction in egg size due to toxin feeding.
Feeding time: The time of
feeding influences the shell quality. Usually, eggshell
calcification takes place during the late hours of night.
Supply of key nutrients at site of shell formation is essential
at the peak phase of shell formation is a paramount key
factor determining the shell strength. The normal practice
of feeding the layers during the early hours of the day
makes the nutrients unavailable to the birds during eggshell
formation. About 87% of the dietary Ca is metered out of
the gizzard in between 0800 and 2000 hours and very little
of the Ca source is metered out of the gizzard at night.
The feed intake is usually negligible in the night therefore
blood Ca may be exhausted early during the most critical
period of shell formation. Though some quantum of shell
grit is lodged in gizzard its absorption from the digestive
tract may not be effective in absence of other essential
nutrients like cholecalciferol, P and ammo acids etc. Under
normal feeding practices, little Ca is available to the
hen after mid night while the eggshell while the eggshell
formation is more active during the same time. Therefore
shell strength of eggs laid in the morning is not as good
as that of those laid in the afternoon. The time of Ca intake
(feed) is important for shell formation and the most important
time for the hens to receive Ca is during the afternoon
when the shell calcification is initiated.
Midnight feeding will make the Ca more available
during the time of eggshell formation. In this practice,
the lights are switched on for a period of half an hour
at midnight and the hens are allowed to eat. This provides
a source of Ca during the critical phase of shell formation.
Reports have indicated that bird can maintain shell quality
with Ca sources having lower digestibility, by adopting
feeding in the evening hours.
Heat stress-shell quality:
The ambient temperatures during the most part of the year
in tropical countries are much above the ideal temperature,
which is detrimental to the shell quality. To minimize the
ill effects of high environment at temperatures on eggshell
quality, the following dietary manipulations are suggested.
Ensure optimum Ca intake (3.75 g/hen/day). Supplementing
diet with bicarbonate, cholecalciferol, potassium, ascorbic
acid (100mg/kg), acetylsalicylic acid (0.05%) or sodium
bicarbonate (0.12-1.0%) will improve shell quality. Layers
should be fed during the evening to midnight.
The nutritional measures suggested for
sound shell formation are an intake of 3.75 g Ca under normal
conditions, 4.0 to 4.25g/hen/d during summer at optimum
intake of available P (250-300) mg/h/d and cholecalciferol
(1200-1800ICU/kg), with particle size of Ca source 1-1.5mm,
feeding during cooler parts of the day (evening to midnight),
supplementing fed with ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg), keeping
the dietary F content< 650mg/kg, and ensuring optimum
levelsof Cu, Mn and protein content in diet. The ill effect
of heat stress on shell quality can be minimized by supplementing
layer diet with ascorbic acid (100/gT), acetyl salicylic
acid (0.5kg/T), cholecalciferol (2000ICU/kg) or sodium bicarbonate
Area Manager, Indian Herbs Specialities.
The key purpose of operational Management is to achieve
the Organization’s objectives and continuously improve
its performance. Operational management is being clear about
the objectives you have to achieve through your team, in
your department or for your part of the business and using
the available resources to beast effect. Operational Management
means getting things done through people. You have to make
sure you have the right people to do the job. You have to
develop a team and help each member of the team develop
the skills they need to perform their job effectively. You
need to plan the work and allocate it amongst the team,
setting individual (targets) and providing feedback on their
performance Managing people involves building effective
working relationships and dealing with difficult problems,
being careful to be fair and equitable tin all your dealing.
Meeting customer needs. How to meet the customer needs?
· Customer is an end used of any product,
which is available in the market. This section deals about
how to maintaining an effective operation to meet customer
· The following are the tips to help us in satisfying
the customer needs they are as follows: Be clear about the
needs of your customer. Ensure suppliers provide value for
money. Maintain a safe and efficient work environment.
· Design your operational systems to meet customer
specifications. Solve problems for customers when things
Establishment and customer requirements:
1. Research you customer needs: Use formal
and informal techniques to identify the services or products
your customers or potential customers need.
2. Design your services or products to meet your customer’s
needs: Ensure your services and products meet legal and
Organizational requirements and resource constraints.
3. Describe your services or products clearly-explain your
services or products to customers, think about the person
you are talking to, and make sure you communicate in a manner
and at a pace, which is appropriate.
4. Encourage customers to discuss their requirements- Invite
them to seek clarification wherever appropriate and tell
you how well you are meeting their needs.
5. Communicate frequently with customers-develop a relationship
of trust and good will, and keep them informed about any
changes, which affect them.
6. Consult specialists if your are in doubt.
7. Negotiate effectively-use your experience of past negotiations
to ensure the success of future negotiations.
8. Optimize agreements – create a ‘win-win’
situation, where you active your objectives whilst meeting
9. Keep accurate records-include all relevant information
about customer agreements and implementations plans.
10. Design customer-focused operations: organize your operations
to provide the most efficient service to your customers.
11. Develop a helpful staff: - encourage your staff to put
the customers first and to take personal responsibility
for meeting customer needs.
1. Identify the supplies you need:- check
they are sufficient tomeet customer requirements.
2. Identify and develop suitable source of supple: make
sure your suppliers can provide you with the materials you
need for your product and services, always have alternative
suppliers available for contingencies, if possible.
3. Select suppliers obiectively: apply fair criteria in
choosing your suppliers.
4. Review your suppliers regularly-check they continue to
offer best value for money and quality of services.
5. Keep accurate records of suppliers regularly.
6. Watch market and economic trends which may affect supplies-cost;
availability, competitor activities or changes to legislation
which may affect the price or availability of supplies.
7. Take action where there are likely to be problems or
opportunities with supplies-where your informations suggests
changes to supplies which may give you problems or opportunities,
take or recommend, appropriate action to turn the situation
to your advantage.
8. Keep complete and accurate records of negotiations and
agreements with suppliers and pass this information on to
appropriate people as soon as possible.
9. Maintaining goodwill-throughout your negotiations with
suppliers, make sure you retain their goodwill, and find
mutually acceptable ways offsetting any disputes.
Maintaining a productive work environment:
1. Ensure the environment is as conductive
to work as possible involve your staff in assessing the
work environment to see if there are different ways it could
be arranged to improve productivity.
2. Cater for special needs – provide for any special
needs of employees or potential employees to ensure they
can work productively.
3. Ensure you have a sufficient supply of resources-plan
what materials, equipment and resources your require to
keep your operation running smoothly.
4. Where your do not have sufficient resources refer to
the appropriate people-let them know immediately if you
are likely to run out of anything.
5. Pass on recommendations for improving conditions –where
you identify opportunities for improving working conditions,
let the appropriate people know right a way, so the organization
can benefit as soon as possible
Meeting customer specifications:
1. Check that specifications are clear complete
and accurate-where there is any omission or ambiguity; get
clarification from your customer.
2. Draw up plans and schedules to meet these specifications.
3. Make sure they understand how the specifications, plans
and schedules affect them.
4. Monitor what is happening and take appropriate action
to ensure specifications are met.
5. Make best use of resources.
6. Encourage staff to take responsibility for meeting customer
7. Give staff feedback-tell them how well they are doing
in meeting customer requirements.
8. Get feedback from customers-use this feedback to improve
9. Implement any changes without delay and inform relevant
staff, colleagues and customers about these.
10. Keep records of activities and how well you met customer
specifications and make these records available to appropriate
Solving Problems for customers:
1. Design systems to anticipate and avoid
problems for customers –design all your procedures
to meet customer needs.
2. Advise customers about your policies and procedures for
solving their problems-use appropriate media to publish
your polices and procedures and alternative sources of assistance
to which customers may refer.
3. Identify and acknowledge the customer’s perception
of the problem-where problems do occur, listen carefully
in order to understand and knowledge the customer’s
review of the problem.
4. Gather all information relevant to the customer’s
problem-refer to records and other people involved in order
to get a fall picture of the problem.
5. Keep the customer informed tell the customer how you
plan to resolve the problem, how long it will take and give
the customer progress reports where appropriate.
6. Seek advice from colleagues or senior managers-where
organizational procedures do not offer satisfactory solutions
ask colleagues for help in identifying alternative solutions.
7. Implement the solution promptly-once the solution has
been identified, take prompt action to solve the customer’s
problem and information the customer of the action taken.
8. Check customer’s satisfaction – where policies
or procedures do not offer a satisfaction solution, revise
or develop new policies or procedures to avoid or address
12. SAFETY PARAMETERS
FOR DRINKING WATER IN POULTRY
B.V.Sc & A.H. N.D.P.H.
Srinivasa Hatcheries Ltd., GUNTUR-522 007.
Water is involved in every aspect of poultry
metabolism. It plays important roles in regulating body
temperature, digesting food, and eliminating body wastes.
At normal temperatures, poultry consumes at least twice
as much water as feed. When heat stress occurs, water consumption
will double or quadruple. A safe and adequate supply of
water is therefore essential for efficient poultry production.
What are the characteristics of safe, good
quality drinking water for poultry? The answer to this question
is often complex, because the quality of drinking water
can be evaluated in a number of ways. It can be tested for
Physio-Chemical Quality, Microbiological Quality and Agro
– chemical contaminants.
1. Interpreting Bacteria test Results:
- If the number of microorganisms found in a water
sample is too high, it indicates that the water supply is
contaminated. Well water is normally tested for the total
bacteria level. Coliform bacteria are organisms normally
found in the digestive tracts of livestock, humans and birds.
Their presence in water is used as sign of Feacal contamination.
Standards for animal drinking water indicate that there
should be fewer than 100 bacteria of all types per milliliter
of water and fewer than 50-coliform bacteria per ml. The
bacteria level of Zero may be desirable to obtain optimum
2. Causes of high Bacteria counts:
High Bacteria count in well water may be due to contamination
from sources such as sewage treatment fields that are poorly
designed, improperly constructed, failing or located close
to the well. High counts may also result from poor well
construction (in the case of old or shallow wells) or poor
maintenance if the well is not properly protected from the
surface drainage water.
3. Controlling microbial Levels:
It is not advisable to use disinfectants to maintain safe
bacterial levels in a highly contaminated well. Any disinfection
method is likely to fail at some time and expose the poultry
to high levels of bacteria. The only sound approach is to
eliminate the source of contamination. If that is not feasible,
constructing a new well be the best alternative. Even if
the water source has a low bacterial level, poultry may
be exposed to the Microorganisms that grow in waterers.
Because these organisms can develop very rapidly, waterers
should be cleaned properly each day. Chlorination or use
of other disinfectants in the water along with good waterers
cleaning is an effective way of controlling microbial levels.
Chlorination using an in-line proportioner
has been successful in poultry operations if the residual
chlorine level in the waterers is atleast one milligram
per liter of water. Once the water is exposed to the air,
however, the dissolved chlorine quickly dissipates, supper
chlorination or continuous treatment of the well with chlorine
pellets can also effective, but the level of chlorine in
the drinking water must be controlled because excess will
cause poultry to lower their water consumption. Use of an
iodine-base disinfectant to control bacteria in Drinking
water is effective and provides more residual activity but
is usually more expensive than chlorination. Be sure to
use only approved chemicals at the use only approved chemicals
at the recommended rates and ensure that the chemicals are
compatible with the watering equipment. Also be sure to
remove the disinfectant from the waterers and water lines
before using a water vaccine or medication that is incompatible
with the disinfectant.
Nitrates presence in water usually indicates
contamination by runoff containing fertilizer or human and
animal wastes; Nitrates are soluble and may leach in to
the ground water by percolation, through the soil. The toxicity
of nitrates to poultry varies with the age of the birds,
older birds being more tolerant. Levels in excess of 50
mg/1 for chickens have proven harmful. Nitrate levels grater
than 20mg/1 had a negative affect on body weight, feed conversion
or performance. Nitrates are toxic at much lower levels
than nitrates, concentrations as low as 1 mg/l can be toxic.
If nitrate or nitrite levels in well water are too high
and if cannot be eliminated, better to drill a new, deeper,
properly constructed well to solve the problem.
4. Acidity&Alkalinity: The
acidity or alkalinity of water is expressed as its pH level.
Neutral water has pH of 7. Acidic water has a pH greater
than 7. Well water normally has a pH in the range from 6.8-7.8
although it is not uncommon for the pH to be either higher
or lower. Acid drinking water can affect digestion, corrode
water equipment, and be in compatible with medicines and
vaccines. The drinking water with a pH lower that 6, can
impair broiler performance. Water with a pH between 6.0
and 6.3 is suspected of having a negative effect.
5. Hardness: - Although hard
water may cause stains, leave residues or cause other physical
problems in water handling equipment, hard water has not
been demonstrated to have either a positive or negative
impact on poultry performance. In treating hard water for
drinking purpose the poultry care should be taken not to
increase any existing chemical in balance in the water.
6. Naturally occurring chemicals: A large
number of chemicals occur naturally in well water, they
are usually present in amounts that do not interfere with
the metabolism or digestive functions of the chicken. When
the levels of certain chemicals are out of balance, however,
they can – by them selves or in combination with other
chemicals – effect poultry performance.
Sodium: Excessive levels of Sodium have diuretic
effect Sodium level of 50ml/l is detrimental to Broiler
performance if the sulphate levels is also 50mg/l or higher
and the chloride level is 14 mg/l or higher.
Chloride: Consuming too much
chloride has detrimental effect on metabolism. Chloride
levelsof 14mg/l of Drinking water for broilers is detrimental
if combined with 50 ml/l of Sodium.
Sulphate: - High Sulphate
levels have laxative effect. Level of about 125 mg/l are
regarded as normal for well water, but levels as low as
50 mg/l can be detrimental and have a negative effect on
performance of either the sodium or magnesium level is 50
mg/l or more.
Magnesium: - Higher magnesium
levels result loose droppings in poultry. The normal level
of magnesium in well water is about14 mg/l. Magnesium at
the level of 50 mg/l can be detrimental if the sulphate
level is also 50 mg/l or grater. But magnesium level at
68 mg/l alone is not detrimental.
DRINKING WATER QUALITY GUIDELINES
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FOR QUALITY POULTRY PRODUCTION
Dr S Ravinder Reddy,M V Sc, Ph.D
R R Poultry & Livestock Research Institute
Hyderabad , Andra Pradesh, INDIA
rr_ firstname.lastname@example.org www: rrlabs.org
India stands 3rd in egg production and 5th
in the meat production in the world. This development was
possible because of availability of world class layer and
broiler breeds, infrastructure, entrepreneurship etc,. The
challenges we are facing today are poultry product quality
and unorganized marketing sector.
1. The eggs and meat produced in our country
are mostly consumed locally . Indian consumer is not fully
aware of egg and meat quality and he is neither demanding
for quality nor willing to pay premium for superior quality
products. This is one of the reasons for low margins in
poultry farming .Further inspite of incentives given for
exports negligible quantities are exported annually .
The poultry farms should be monitored for feed , water and
environment quality by Total Quality Management (TQM).By
adopting TQM with suitable remedial measures we can improve
poultry productivity and quality. Farmer takes care of management,
finance, administration, records keeping etc so he is not
able to concentrate on quality. Hatcheries are professionally
managed with specialized people working in Administration,
sales ,service, finance etc,. and farmer needs to have at
least 1 or 2 managers and supervisors for the farm management.
Besides this some of the farmers are illiterates and less
informed about quality. They feel that trained manpower
is costly or difficult to get. This is partly correct because
no body made a serious attempt to motivate unemployed youth
to take up commercial poultry farm jobs.
Training is required for the following posts to
improve farm productivity and quality
1. Poultry supervisors, vaccinators, managers
2. Feed plant supervisors, managers
The poultry industry today giving
direct or indirect employement to 30 lac people already
and it will provide more jobs as the egg and meat consumption
increases (Table 1)
There are 50 lac educated youth in AP and
10 crores in India who are ether unemployed or underemployed.
These people can be motivated to take up poultry job .Though
poultry job needs hard work, dedication it can assure them
a permanent job as this Industry is spread throughout the
country and has bright future.
The institutes engaged in training of people
for poultry jobs are
1. B V Rao Institute of poultry Management ,Pune
2. Central poultry Development Organisation Hassargutta
3. I V R I
4. Sri Venkateshwara Veterinary University, A P.
5. K V K- ICAR present in different parts of India.
6. R R Poultry & Live stock Research institute.
Recently the Indira Kranthi Patham of A P
Government had sponsored a 2 month training program for
unemployed rural youth with 100 % job placement guarantee.
The students after completion of this training program are
placed as poultry supervisors in Hyderabad. Our poultry
industry needs public and private sector to take up training
program and put them as middle level management .
The training includes theory classes as well
as on farm training, feed plant visit , commercial broiler
and layer farm visits. The training also includes basics
in Maths,English personnel hygiene etc,.
There is a need to train and employ unemployed
youth in the poultry Industry which can improve poultry
productivity and quality. Good quality poultry eggs and
meat can give
1. good price for our produce
2. Improving egg and meat consumption
3. Help in branding of poultry products
The farmer do poultry farming as professional business ,
produce high quality products and aim for higher profits
in business by calculating Return on Investment and not
on input cost.